SOUTHWESTERN LORE

Contents & Abstracts

 

SOUTHWESTERN LORE, Journal of Colorado Archaeology, is the official publication of the Colorado Archaeological Society. A respected forum for technical papers, it has been published quarterly without interruption since June 1935.  The contents and abstracts of the quarterly volumes of years 2000 to present are shown below.  

 

To learn more about SWL and submitting articles for publication, click here.

 

(click on the appropriate issue to go directly to its contents)

 

2011

Spring 2011, Volume 77, No. 1

Summer/Fall 2011, Volume 77, Nos. 2 & 3

Winter 2011,Volume 77, No. 4

2010

Spring 2010, Volume 76, Number 1 75TH ANNIVERSARY ISSUE

Summer 2010, Volume 76, Number 2

Fall 2010, Volume 76, Number 3

Winter 2010, Volume 76, Number 4

2009

Spring/Summer 2009, Volume 75, Nos. 1 & 2

      Colorado Archaeology

Fall 2009, Volume 75, Number 3

Winter 2009, Volume 75, Number 4

2008

Spring 2008, Volume 74, Number 1

Summer 2008, Volume 74, Number 2

Fall/Winter 2008, Volume 74, Nos. 3 & 4

2007

Spring 2007, Volume 73, Number 1

Summer 2007, Volume 73, Number 2

Fall 2007, Volume 73, Number 3

Winter 2007, Volume 73, Number 4

2006

Spring 2006, Volume 72, Number 1

Summer 2006, Volume 72, Number 2

Fall 2006, Volume 72, Number 3

Winter 2006, Volume 72, Number 4

2005

Spring 2005, Volume 71, Number 1

Summer 2005, Volume 71, Number 2

Fall 2005, Volume 71, Number 3

Winter 2005, Volume 71, Number 4

2004

Spring 2004, Volume 70, Number 1

Spring 2004, Volume 70, Number 2

Fall 2004, Volume 70, Number3

Winter 2004, Volume 70, Number 4

2003

Spring 2003, Volume 69, Number 1

Summer 2003, Volume 69, Number 2

Fall 2003, Volume 69, Number 3

Winter 2003, Volume 69, Number 4

2002

Spring 2002, Volume 68, Number 1

Summer 2002, Volume 68, Number 2

Fall 2002, Volume 68, Number 3

Winter 2002, Volume 68, Number 4

2001

Spring 2001, Volume 67, Number 1

Summer 2001, Volume 67, Number 2

Fall 2001, Volume 67, Number 3 

#Winter 2001, Volume 67, Number 4

2000

Spring 2000, Volume 66, Number 1

Summer 2000, Volume 66, Number 2

Fall 2000, Volume 66, Number 3

Winter 2000, Volume 66, Number 4

1990 - 1994

Volume 56, Number 1 to Volume 60, Number 4 (PDF)

1995 - 1999

Volume 61, Number 1 to Volume 65, Number 4 (PDF)

 


 

Spring 2000, Volume 66, Number 1

 

Pp. 1-18: SITE 5MT10,967, AN ISOLATED PREHISTORIC HUMAN BURIAL FROM THE LOWER MONTEZUMA VALLEY, SOUTHWESTERN COLORADO, By Paul R. Nickens and John M. Mabry

Abstract

Excavation and analysis of an isolated human burial and associated remains by Complete Archaeological Service Associates indicate that the individual had been violently killed and subsequently buried with his possessions in an isolated location. The physical characteristics of the individual, the accompanying grave goods, and the burial location suggest that he may have been an intruder into the local Anasazi area from the Fremont region to the northwest.

 

Pp. 19-26: A Re-analysis of Canid Bones From the Dipper Gap Site (5LO101), Logan county, Colorado, By Troy R. Lovata

Abstract

A re-analysis of the canid bones from the Dipper Gap site (5LO101) using comparisons from zooarchaeological studies indicates the possibility of carnivore modification alongside prehistoric human processing. These comparisons also give evidence of the specific practice of skinning, and not just the general process of butchering as described by Metcalf in his original 1974 report.

 

Pp. 27-28: 2 Book Reviews by Larry Riggs

 

The Casas Grandes World, edited by Curtis Schaafsma & Carroll Riley. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, 1999

 

The True History of Chocolate, by Sophie D. Coe & Michael D. Coe. Thames and Hudson, London and New York City, 1996

 

Pg. 29: Editor’s Note by Kevin Black

 

Pp. 30-31: Colorado Archaeological Society Annual Encampment 2000, June 30–July 3 at Lathrop State Park, Walsenburg, Colorado

 

Pg. 32: 2000 Officers and Local Chapters, Colorado Archaeological Society

 


Return to top


 

Summer 2000, Volume 66, Number 2

 

Pp. 1-2: Gary Moreschini obituary by D. Georgine Booms and Michael J. Maselli

 

Pp. 3-21: Warriors, Witches, and Cannibals: Violence in the Prehistoric American Southwest, By Michael M. Margolis

Abstract

In the American Southwest, archaeologists have unearthed assemblages of damaged human remains that date from AD 900 to the Historic period. Resulting from violence, these assemblages consist of highly fragmented remains that show signs of cutting, crushing and burning near the time of death. The popular, and highly publicized claims of cannibalism based on these assemblages are evaluated to show sufficient faults to warrant the examination of alternative hypotheses, including warfare and witch execution. Puebloan traditional knowledge and ethnographic data on social organization and ritually sanctioned violence suggest that many of these assemblages may be the result of witch executions of individuals, families, clans, and villages. The alternative hypothesis of witch execution is used to revise recently proposed patterns of prehistoric violence in the Southwest.

 

Pp. 22-37: RED ROCK LEDGE: PLAINS BIOGRAPHIC ROCK ART IN THE PICKETWIRE CANYONLANDS, Southeastern COLORADO, by James D. Keyser and Mark D. Mitchell

Abstract

The Red Rock Ledge site, a scratched petroglyph scene adjacent to the Purgatoire River south of La Junta, Colorado, is a classic example of Plains Biographic tradition art. The drawing, done in the Early Biographic style, shows a warrior leaving a tipi camp and counting coup on an enemy by capturing his coup stick as a war trophy. Based on stylistic criteria, the drawing is dated to the period between A.D. 1800 and 1850. The site demonstrates the close similarities among Historic period rock art sites located across the Plains region, and suggests that the study of Central and Southern Plains rock art has the potential to yield important information about the development of Plains Biographic art.

 

Pp. 38-40: Book Reviews

 

By Elizabeth Ann Morris: Colorado Prehistory: A Context for the Platte River Basin, by Kevin P. Gilmore, Marcia Tate, Mark L. Chenault, Bonnie L. Clark, Terri McBride, and Margaret Wood. Colorado Council of Professional Archaeologists, Denver, 1999

 

By Larry Riggs: Accidental Archaeologist: Memoirs of Jesse D. Jennings, by Jesse D. Jennings. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, 1994

 


Return to top


 

Fall 2000, Volume 66, Number 3

 

Pp. 1-29: Paradox Valley, Colorado: Cultural Interactions and Considerations for Reinterpretation, by Todd McMahon

Abstract

The 1931 survey of Paradox Valley, Colorado by George and Edna Woodbury of the State Historical Society of Colorado remains a primary source of data for sites from the Formative period of west central Colorado. Previous and recent investigations and interpretations of Paradox Valley and neighboring areas are presented, each with their own views regarding cultural affiliations. An in situ chronology for sites in Paradox Valley, Tabeguache and the Cottonwood Creek localities is proposed based on examination of the architectural sequence and reviewing the previous investigations. By studying architectural change the author suggests that increasing levels of sedentism occurred in this area, and cautiously assigns the area to the Fremont cultural affiliation until the exact relationship with populations further west is more fully known. For the greater Southwest, there exists the possibility that trading networks were developed north from the core Anasazi (Ancestral Puebloan) areas to these locales at the Turner-Look site and along Cottonwood Creek, the Dolores and San Miguel rivers around A.D. 1100. A few techniques are discussed as possible tests to determine interactions between the two areas. The challenge remaining then is to incorporate this peripheral area into the current migration and exchange models for the Southwest and its relevance to other areas of Colorado.

 

Pp. 30-36: ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEYS OF PRIVATE LANDS: AN EXAMPLE FROM SOUTHWESTERN COLORADO,

by Philip Duke and Gary Matlock

Abstract

Beginning in 1995, Fort Lewis College conducted archaeological surveys of private lands in southwest Colorado as part of a long-term project to help educate landowners on the importance of preserving and protecting archaeological resources. This paper documents the results of these surveys and suggests procedures for working with landowners on such projects.

 

Pg. 37: CHANGING OF THE GUARD, new book review editor

 

Pp. 38-40: Book Review by Kevin Thompson

 

Colorado Prehistory: A Context for the Northern Colorado River Basin, by Alan D. Reed and Michael D. Metcalf. Colorado Council of Professional Archaeologists, Denver, 1999

 


Return to top


 

Winter 2000, Volume 66, Number 4

 

Pp. 1-13: Ground Stone Gorgets from the Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site, Las Animas County, Colorado, by Christopher Lintz

Abstract

Two and perhaps three ground stone gorgets have been recovered from prehistoric sites within the Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site of southeastern Colorado. This paper summarizes the age, affiliation, distribution and function of gorgets, and calls attention to this distinctive type of implement that most frequently occurs some 400 to 600 km east of their place of discovery. Their occurrence in the western portion of the High Plains has interesting implications for social contacts and interactions during the Archaic or Woodland periods.

 

Pp. 14-22: Microscopic and Molecular Evidence for the Human Origin of the Coprolite from the "Cannibalism" Site at Cowboy Wash (5MT10010), by Jennifer E. Marlar, Richard A. Marlar, Karl J. Reinhard, Banks L. Leonard, Patricia M. Lambert, and Brian R. Billman

Abstract

A recent article in Nature reports biochemical evidence of the consumption of human muscle tissue by humans. The evidence is based on the presence of myoglobin, a heart and skeletal muscle protein, in a human coprolite. The coprolite was found at a small early Pueblo III habitation site (5MT10010) located along Cowboy Wash in southwestern Colorado, with archaeological and osteological indications of cannibalism. Critics of this report have suggested that the source of the coprolite was canine (dog or coyote) and not human. Here, we present molecular evidence confirming the human origin of the coprolite. Human proteins usually present in human fecal material were detected in the 5MT10010 coprolite, and canine blood proteins and immunoglobulins normally found in canine fecal material were not. These results support previously published data that characterized the coprolite as human and support other archaeological, osteological, and biochemical evidence that prehistoric cannibalism occurred at 5MT10010.

 

Pp. 23-34: Corrugated Mesa Verde White Wares: Their Forms, Distribution and Chronology, by Norman T. Oppelt

Abstract

Samples of sherds from corrugated Mesa Verde White Ware bowls, 12 whole corrugated bowls, and 11 ollas with corrugated necks were analyzed. These data and data from previous research indicate: (1) Mesa Verde White Ware bowls with corrugated exteriors are primarily Mancos Black-on-white with a few Cortez Black-on-white and McElmo Black-on-white examples. The Mesa Verde White Ware ollas with corrugated necks are mainly later types, McElmo Black-on-white and Mesa Verde Black-on-white. (2) Corrugated Mesa Verde White Ware vessels are found in most of the Pueblo II sites of the Northern San Juan region, being most common in the Mesa Verde and Montezuma Valley areas. (3) Corrugated white ware was never common, comprising one to five percent of the Mancos Black-on-white sherds on excavated sites; and (4) White ware pottery with corrugations should be considered a variation or mode of the parent type rather than a separate pottery type.

 

 

 

Pp. 35-38: Book Reviews by Larry Riggs

 

The Elgin Affair: The Abduction of Antiquity's Greatest Treasures and the Passions It Aroused, by Theodore Vrettos. Arcade Publishing, Inc., New York, 1997

 

It's About Time: A History of Archaeological Dating in North America, edited by Stephen E. Nash. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, 2000

 

Models for the Millennium: Great Basin Anthropology Today, edited by Charlotte Beck. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, 1999

 

Pp. 39-40: BOOKNOTES, edited by Frederic J. Athearn

 


Return to top


 

Spring 2001, Volume 67, Number 1

 

Pp. 1-17: STONE CIRCLES AT ANTELOPE GULCH, FREMONT COUNTY, COLORADO, By Donald C. Tucker

Abstract

The Antelope Gulch site (5FN494) is an unusual open stone circle site located in northwest Fremont County, Colorado. It is purported to be a bison jump site because bison bones had been found there. The purpose of the project was to survey and record the site, determine whether it was a habitation site and if there was enough evidence to definitely say it was a bison jump site. During the survey, thirteen spaced-stone circles were found, either clustered in groups of three or occurring singly. This may indicate that the site was occupied by small family groups. Three circle groups have three circles each related by proximity. One group containing the three smallest circles has stones that are more deeply embedded and more lichen covered compared to the other circles and may represent an earlier occupation. No surface evidence of hearth features was located either within the circles or surrounding them. Most artifacts were not diagnostic. Two broken projectile points appear to be Late Archaic types, indicating an early site usage that may or may not be associated with the stone circles. Other artifacts found included two pieces of ground stone, four scrapers and many flakes. The artifacts may indicate occupational usage. There are also two lithic quarry locations in the site area. There is no conclusive evidence that the site was a bison jump, even though one bison horn was found.

 

Pp. 18-42: Nancy Ellen (5RB2728): A Paleoindian Site in the Badlands of Coal Oil Basin, Rio Blanco County, Colorado, By Steven G. Baker

Abstract

The Nancy Ellen Site (5RB2728) was briefly investigated in 1985 in association with pipeline construction in the badlands of Coal Oil Basin, Rio Blanco County, Colorado. Four early Holocene age radiocarbon dates were obtained from buried features, including remnants of rock-filled hearths, set within what appears to be a significantly eroded Paleoindian occupation surface. Four dates associated with these features range from 8550 to 9970 B.P. These dates also were associated with paleoenvironmental data which suggest that a saltbush vegetational community, not greatly different in its basic characteristics than that observed today, also was present in Coal Oil Basin during early Holocene times. Although the buried features appear man-made, they lack associated portable or diagnostic elements of material culture. The site does, however, also evidence a thin surface lithic component of at least an Archaic era age. The buried hearths are a type of archaeological feature which is frequently encountered in the local area and which commonly lacks diagnostic cultural associations. These features are, nevertheless, routinely regarded as culturally derived by most archaeologists. Fifteen years after their discovery, the Nancy Ellen features still hold the distinction of being the earliest dated and only Paleoindian archaeological features documented from northwestern Colorado and are also among the very earliest ones known from the entire state as well. Despite the presence of these obviously early and common archaeological features as a lower component of an undoubted archaeological site, the Nancy Ellen site’s status as a Paleoindian resource has been met with some peculiar and unfounded skepticism. At the very least it is a site that deserves further evaluation and might yet yield important data on the Paleoindian era. This article summarizes the Paleoindian age archaeological evidence and dating at Nancy Ellen. It closes with a call for better management of the resource and comments on archaeological expectations for discovery of other Paleoindian sites in northwestern Colorado.

 

Pp. 43-45: Book Review by Mark Stiger

 

Colorado Prehistory: A Context for the Arkansas River Basin, by Christian J. Zier and Stephen M. Kalasz, with contributions by Mary W. Painter, Mark Mitchell, Amy Holmes, and Michael McFaul. Colorado Council of Professional Archaeologists, Denver, 1999

 

Pg. 46: GUIDELINES FOR CONTRIBUTORS

 

Pg. 47: 2001 Officers, Colorado Archaeological Society

Pg. 48: Local Chapters, Colorado Archaeological Society

 


Return to top


 

Summer 2001, Volume 67, Number 2

 

Pp. 1-16: ARCHAEOLOGISTS ABOVE TIMBERLINE: THE EARLY YEARS, By James B. Benedict

Abstract

The lives and contributions of four pioneering high-mountain archaeologists (Jack Moomaw, Dorr Yeager, Ronald Ives, and Betty Yelm) and an accidental ethnographer (Oliver Toll) are profiled in this article. All worked before World War II at high altitudes in the Indian Peaks Wilderness and Rocky Mountain National Park. Their discoveries and observations provide guidance, inspiration, and an occasional cautionary note for those who continue to practice archaeology above timberline.

 

Pp. 17-25: THE WHITECOTTON INTERMOUNTAIN WARE VESSEL, ROUTT COUNTY, COLORADO, By John O. Ross

Abstract

As far as has been reported, only eight other whole or partial Intermountain ware vessels have been found in Colorado, four along the northern Front Range, and four on the Western Slope. The Whitecotton pot from site 5RT1334 brings the total to nine, the fifth on the Western Slope. Several Intermountain ware pots have been found in south-central and western Wyoming. There are natural topographic travel routes following watercourses between Wyoming and this site near the Yampa River Valley, several miles southwest of Steamboat Springs. This report describes the Whitecotton pot, raises questions about how and when it came to be at 5RT1334, and proposes possible prehistoric travel routes between 5RT1334 and other Intermountain ware-bearing sites in south-central and western Wyoming.

 


Pp. 26-27:
 Book Review
by Earl S. Mead

The Kachina and the Cross: Indians and Spaniards in the Early Southwest, by Carroll L. Riley. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, 1999

 

Pg. 28:  BOOK NOTES, prepared by Robert J. Mutaw

 

Peg's Cabin

 


Return to top


 

Fall 2001, Volume 67, Number 3

 

Pp. 1-7: Obituary, Gilbert R. Wenger: Native Western Slope Archaeologist Yodeling Beyond the Great Divide, by Steven G. Baker

 

Pp.8-32: Historical Dendroarchaeology in Central Colorado: Lessons from the Keystone Area, by Ronald H. Towner and Michael R Clary

Abstract

Archaeological dendrochronology is most often associated with the dating of prehistoric masonry structures in southwestern Colorado, such as the famous sites in Mesa Verde and elsewhere. Tree-ring dating, however, is used in a wide variety of disciplines in many different parts of the world. This paper describes the results of recent research in the central Colorado Rockies near the community of Keystone. It demonstrates that tree-ring dating of historic structures is viable in the area, and also shows how tree-ring collections can contribute not only to the dating of such structures, but to behavioral and environmental inferences as well.

 


Return to top


 

Winter 2001, Volume 67, Number 4

 

Pp. 1-13: HORSE PETROGLYPHS AS SYMBOLS OF CULTURAL TRANSFORMATION, by Peter Faris

 

Abstract
The acquisition of horses by Native peoples led to a rapid transformation of Plains Indian life. Not only was the horse a powerful agent of change to the tribes of Plains and Plateau Indians who acquired it, it became a symbol of that change as well. The style of portrayals of horses in rock art changed over the
years indicating the people's attitude toward, and cultural assimilation of, the horse. This process is illustrated by examples of horses in the rock art of Colorado.

 

Pp. 14-18:  SOME THOUGHTS ON CHIMNEY ROCK, by David A. Breternitz

 

Abstract
A brief review of the circumstances and personnel who initiated the 1970-1972 investigations at Chimney Rock is followed by two suggestions: 1) that at least a portion of the Chimney Rock population contributed to the Gallina occupation of north-central New Mexico in the A.D. 1200s; and, 2) that a community study of Chimney Rock would generate questions and suggestions regarding some of the 
current lapses in our knowledge of Chimney Rock.

Pg. 19:  BOOK REVIEW, by Robert Mutaw.  
Images From the Past: A Self-Guided Tour of Petroglyphs and Pictographs of the American Southwest, by Robin Scott Bicknell. The Patrice Press, Tucson, Arizona, 2001.


Return to top


 

Spring 2002, Volume 68, Number 1

 

Pp. 1-22: PREHISTORIC SITES AND SETTLEMENT PATTERNS IN THE KEN-CARYL VALLEY, JEFFERSON COUNTY, COLORADO, by Lawrence E. Moore

 

Abstract

This report summarizes archaeological survey work done by members of the Denver Chapter, Colorado Archaeological Society, during the calendar year of 2000. This project is part of a continuing research program focused on the Ken-Caryl Valley of Jefferson County. The area surveyed was a portion of the Lyons ridge and its adjacent side slopes from Dutch Creek to Massey Creek. Nine prehistoric and two historic sites were recorded. The prehistoric information is discussed in relation to two models of land use, one a seasonal model based on transhumance and the other a year round model emphasizing regional trade. Additional work is called for to assess the merits of each. 

 

Pp. 23-37: A NEWLY DISCOVERED GAME DRIVE SITE IN ROCKY MOUNTAIN NATIONAL PARK, NORTH-CENTRAL COLORADO, by James B. Benedict

 

Abstract

The Ute Trail game drive (5LR10260) is above timberline near the east end of Trail Ridge, in Rocky Mountain National Park. Two of the site's three rudimentary cairn lines were constructed to help drive ungulates (probably elk) from a valley-floor grazing area to a ridgecrest col. As the animals emerged from the col, they entered a corral-like enclosure formed of large, in-situ boulders and a transverse cairn line. Here hunters were stationed in ambush. Granite-weathering data indicate that the cairn lines and a nearby stone semicircle are prehistoric, but do not provide numerical ages. Absence of broken projectile points, butchering tools, and waste flakes suggests that the hunt was unsuccessful. The site is interpreted as an "expedient drive system" (hastily constructed to take advantage of a chance encounter with game), rather than a "destination drive system" (regularly visited, maintained, and improved as part of a group's seasonal rounds). The Inuit who traveled with Diamond Jenness on Victoria Island in August, 1915, built similar structures, and used them for impromptu caribou drives on nine separate occasions during a 22-day period. Expedient drive systems are less common in the Front Range than might be expected from Jenness's ethnographic data. Slipshod construction and damage by periglacial processes may help account for their underrepresentation in the archaeological record. 

 

Pg. 38:  LISTS OF 2002 OFFICERS AND LOCAL CHAPTERS, COLORADO ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

 

Pg. 39: LOCAL CHAPTERS, COLORADO ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY


Return to top


 

Summer 2002, Volume 68, Number 2

Pp. 1-17: GENDER AND CLASS ROLES IN THE WESTERN UNITED STATES DURING THE VICTORIAN ERA, by Tammy Stone

Abstract
Views of rights, obligations, and behavioral expectations associated with gender roles vary to some degree within different segments of the society. While ideal gender roles of the Victorian era in America are extensively discussed in the literature of the late 1800s, and are frequently thought of today as having been uniformly accepted, many of the ideals of the "cult of domesticity" were not followed outside of upper middle class society in eastern urban centers. However, a different view of Victorian gender roles can be seen at western homesteads. For example, despite Victorian proscriptions against women’s participation in the public sphere, 18 percent of the homestead entrants in northeastern Colorado were by single women. This paper discusses the excavation of one of these homesteads, the Adelia Wells homestead, dated to the 1890s in Arapahoe County, Colorado and what these excavations indicate about concepts of middle class status and gender roles in the rural west.

Pp. 18-32: BASKETMAKER II SITE INVESTIGATIONS NEAR DURANGO, COLORADO, 1966, by David A. Breternitz

Abstract
Ignacio 12:46 (5LP6444) is a Basketmaker II habitation site located on the west side of the Animas Valley, north of Durango, Colorado. It was investigated in 1966 by a "team" comprised of two amateurs, I. F. (Zeke) Flora and William L. Morris, and students from the University of Colorado Mesa Verde Archaeological Field School. Subsequently, the analysis of tree-ring material indicates that the house floor at Ignacio 12:46 is the latest tree-ring dated Basketmaker II occupation in the Durango area, dating from the A.D. 360s and A.D. 370s.


Return to top


Fall 2002, Volume 68, Number 3

Pp. 1-16: A CLOSER LOOK AT EASTERN UTE SUBSISTENCE, by Rand A. Greubel

Abstract  
Until recently there have been little archaeological data regarding the subsistence practices of the Eastern Ute during the Protohistoric and early Historic periods, from approximately A.D. 1300 to the mid-nineteenth century. Due to the sparse archaeological evidence, Eastern Ute subsistence frequently has been inferred from ethnographic data, historical accounts, and even optimal foraging or other subsistence models constructed for Great Basin Numic groups who inhabited environments quite different from those occupied by the Eastern Ute. A number of sites with Ute components in western Colorado and eastern Utah have been excavated during the past few years, allowing a more accurate subsistence model for Numic peoples of the northern Colorado Plateau. Lithic tools and reduction strategies, subsistence remains, ceramic technology, and hearth form and furniture collectively suggest that the Ute economy was heavily reliant on fauna, with a lack of evidence for intensive exploitation of floral resources.

Pp. 17-25: UTE AND NAVAJO CERAMICS: A VIEW FROM WESTERN COLORADO, by John D. Cater

Abstract  
Ceramic artifacts recovered from well-dated Ute contexts at site 5MN4253 in western Colorado have brought into question what is currently known regarding Uncompahgre Brown ware. The recovery of these ceramics also has generated new questions regarding the origin of the type, and its comparisons with Dinetah Gray ware, a Navajo pottery type contemporary with Uncompahgre Brown ware.

 Pg. 26: Book Review, by Robert J. Mutaw

San Luis Valley Rock Art, by Ron Kessler. Adobe Village Press, Monte Vista, Colorado, 2000.

Pp. 27-28: Book Notes, by Robert J. Mutaw


Return to top


Winter 2002, Volume 68, Number 4

Pp. 1-10: POTTERY AND OTHER INTRUSIVE MATERIALS IN MESA VERDE NATIONAL PARK, by Norman T. Oppelt

Abstract
An examination of the intrusive pottery from excavations and surveys in the Mesa Verde National Park shows that red ware of several types was imported by Ancestral Puebloans for all of their 700 year tenure on Mesa Verde.  It is probable that the red ware served some special ritual purpose.  San Juan Red Ware, the first intrusive pottery, was imported from approximately A.D. 750 to 1100.  Bluff Black-on-red was the most common type of San Juan Red Ware found on Mesa Verde indicating the height of contact with people in other parts of the northern San Juan was A.D. 780 to 940.  Most of this type of pottery came from the east in the La Plata and Animas drainages.  Small amounts of Bluff Black-on-red were also imported from southeastern Utah, and a sherd-tempered variety, McPhee Black-on-red, came from the nearby Montezuma Valley.  As the importation of San Juan Red Ware decreased in the tenth century, red ware was obtained from areas outside the region.  Tsegi Orange Ware from the Kayenta area of northeastern Arizona and White Mountain Red Ware from west-central New Mexico and east-central Arizona were imported long distances in the eleventh to thirteenth centuries.  Both of the se wares are present on Mesa Verde in small amounts. The only intrusive white ware during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries is Cibola White Ware, which is scarce, suggesting little contact with people from the Chaco are to the south.  The lack of intrusive pottery of any type, and of other materials such as turquoise, obsidian, and shell during the 1200s, indicates little trade with people outside Mesa Verde in the decades prior to abandonment.

Pp. 11-23: THE WEST COTTONWOOD WING: A NEWLY DISCOVERED GAME-HANDLING FACILITY IN EAGLE COUNTY, COLORADO, by Michael D. Metcalf

Abstract
The “wing” is a Ute game-handling facility characterized by converging wings of brush and/or stone placed on the terrain to encourage game animals into a precise spot where they could be killed by hunters.  Wings are generally described in Ute ethnographies, and the concept of the wing remains alive in Ute oral tradition.  An archaeological example of a wing, located north of the Eagle River, is described in this article and some general observations about the functioning of the wing are presented.  The wing is viewed as a regularly utilized facility, used and maintained by a small group in the context of an annual subsistence cycle.  Similarities to some high altitude game drive systems are noted, particularly to small-scale features designed to work as enhancements to natural terrain features.

Pp. 24-28: ALICE HAMILTON SCHOLARSHIPS: 15 YEARS OF HELPING COLORADO ARCHAEOLOGY, by The Alice Hamilton Scholarship Committee

Abstract
The Colorado Archaeological Society (CAS) annually awards scholarships to Colorado archaeology students in the name of Alice Hamilton.  Over the years several prominent archaeologists have been awarded these scholarships during their training.  CAS will continue to provide scholarships to students of archaeology in 2003.  This article reviews the history of the Alice Hamilton Scholarship program and provides details for applications to the scholarship program.

Pg. 29: BOOK REVIEW, by Robert J. Mutaw.

Sacred Objects and Sacred Places: Preserving Tribal Traditions, by Andrew Gulliford. University Press of Colorado, Boulder, 2000.

Pp. 30-31: BOOK REVIEWS, by Michael J. Landem.

Stone Age Spear and Arrow Points of California and the Great Basin, by Noel D. JusticeIndiana University Press, Bloomington, 2002; and

Stone Age Spear and Arrow Points of the Southwestern United States, by Noel D. JusticeIndiana University Press, Bloomington, 2002.


Return to top


 Spring 2003, Volume 69, Number 1

Pp. 1-11: A NEW PERSPECTIVE ON THE SEASONAL USE OF UTE ARCHITECTURE IN WESTERN COLORADO, by John Cater

Abstract
Many discussions and theories regarding Ute architecture and seasonality have been made over the years. These theories have been based largely on a limited survey level database and speculation. Recent excavations of Ute sites with architectural elements have produced data that support some, and negate other elements of these theories. Recent work along the Trans-Colorado Pipeline Corridor has revealed new data regarding Ute architecture that may lead to a better understanding of technology, seasonality, and adaptation in western Colorado.

Pp. 12-30: AN ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE TRINCHERA CAVE AREA, SOUTHEASTERN COLORADO, by Kevin D. Black

Abstract
An inventory of land surrounding the Trinchera Cave site was conducted in 1997-1999. The survey trained volunteers in the Program for Avocational Archaeological Certification (PAAC), yielding settlement information on the Trinchera Creek canyon system in which Trinchera Cave is situated. This paper summarizes the survey results, based on field documentation of 57 sites and 18 isolated finds. Post-A.D. 1050 use of the locality apparently was heaviest, with little evidence of materials pre-dating 1000 B.C. Diagnostic tools are common, as are other lithics of which many are made from non-local obsidian and Alibates chert. Along with abundant local lithics and mostly non-micaceous plain ceramics, the survey results show that local hunter-gatherers' territorial range focused on Southern Plains resources with little obvious use of higher elevations in the foothills and mountains to the west and northwest.

 Pg. 31: BOOK REVIEW, by Jeannette L. Mobley–Tanaka

Colorado Prehistory: A Context for the Southern Colorado River Basin, edited by William D. Lipe, Mark D. Varien, and Richard H. Wilshusen. Colorado Council of Professional Archaeologists, Denver, 1999.

Pg. 33: BOOK REVIEW, by Robert J. Mutaw

Tony Hillerman’s Navajoland: Hideouts, Haunts, and Havens in the Joe Leaphorn and Jim Chee Mysteries, by Laurence D. Linford. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, 2001.

Pg. 35: 2003 OFFICERS, COLORADO ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

Pg. 36: LOCAL CHAPTERS, COLORADO ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY


Return to top


 Summer 2003, Volume 69, Number 2

Pp. 1-19: THE INDUSTRIAL ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE MILL CREEK ARRASTRA SITE (5CC637), CLEAR CREEK COUNTY, COLORADO, by Eric Twitty, William Martin, and Todd Kohler

Abstract
In 2002, archaeologists and historians from SWCA Environmental Consultants recorded and documented a small arrastra site along Mill Creek in northern Clear Creek County, Colorado.  While widely used in the early development of the mining industry in the state and across the region, this type of site has not been systematically investigated or reported in the historical or archaeological literature.  This research, which was primarily undertaken to help with the long-term management and preservation of this important site, was designed to place the site within the larger context of mining development in the Clear Creek Valley, describe the milling technology and material culture associated with this site type, and provide a history of the site as it relates to who operated it and when.  Based on several historical sources, the Mill Creek Arrastra Site appears to have been in operation during the early to mid-1860s.

Pp. 20-42: VARIATION AT HIGH ELEVATION: REPORTING NEW CERAMIC SITES FROM THE SOUTHERN COLORADO ROCKIES, by Wade Broadhead

Abstract
The study of Post-Archaic/Late Prehistoric occupations in west-central Colorado has focused primarily on the Fremont, Gateway, and Puebloan cultures.  With limited evidence to the contrary, the Late Prehistoric (ceramic era) occupation of the central Colorado Rocky Mountains largely involves discussion of the Ute culture and Uncompahgre Brown ware, the predominate ethnic group and ceramic type found in west-central Colorado.  This article reports ten new ceramic sites representing at least twelve different vessels in the Gunnison Basin, a geographic region where evidence of numerous variations in ceramic traditions—Numic and otherwise—have been discovered.  This report describes ten new high elevation ceramic sites found from 1990 to 2000, and also reports ancillary studies associated with these sites. The paper demonstrates that high elevation ceramic sites are more common than once believed and suggests that the Late Prehistoric–Protohistoric period in the Colorado mountains was dynamic and diverse. These sites document significant interchange between the central Colorado high country and southwestern Colorado–northern New Mexico. They also suggest that, if a “Numic spread” affected the Gunnison Basin, the Numic populations maintained ancient connections to the south and did not prefer the traditional Ute punctate pottery found elsewhere in the Colorado mountains.  This article also presents cursory evidence for possible Athapaskan visitation into traditional Ute homelands, but by no means suggests an intermountain migration route.

Pg. 43: BOOK REVIEW, by Earl S. Mead

Warrior, Shield, and Star: Imagery and Ideology of Pueblo Warfare, by Polly Schaafsma. Western Edge Press, Santa Fe, 2000.


Return to top


 

  Fall 2003, Volume 69, Number 3

Pp. 1-25: THE HOGBACK VALLEY AND ITS RELATION TO DENVER AREA PREHISTORY, by Lawrence E. Moore and Richard Busch

Abstract

A prehistoric habitation area is proposed for much of the greater Denver area. Important sub-areas include the Hogback valley and adjacent portions of the plains, Palmer Divide, and Front Range montane. Prehistoric site densities are calculated for these sub-areas, concluding that the Hogback valley has the highest density of habitation sites. This high density makes the Hogback valley a primary sub-area within the broader habitation area. This is likely due to the concentrations of quarries and easy access to other multiple natural resources available from this location. A model is presented wherein prehistoric peoples implemented a short-range mobility strategy to use the rich local resources resulting in year-round residence within the Denver habitation area. 

Pp. 26-33: THE MAST SITE: PATTERNS IN LATE ARCHAIC FIRE-CRACKED-ROCK FEATURES IN THE GUNNISON BASIN, by Erik Bjornstad

Abstract

The Mast site is situated in a small housing subdivision approximately .4 km to the south of the Tenderfoot site in Gunnison County, Colorado.  When the homeowners uncovered a fire-cracked-rock feature in the spring of 1999, the opportunity arose to salvage data before the feature was destroyed.  In a single day of excavations, Western State College mapped the feature and excavated its fill and surrounding matrix.  Artifacts recovered included one tool, as well as several pieces of debitage.

Pp. 34-35: BOOK REVIEW, by Gordon C. Tucker, Jr.

Hunter-Gatherer Archaeology of the Colorado High Country, by Mark Stiger. University Press of Colorado, Boulder, 2001.

Pp. 35-36: BOOK REVIEW, by Michael Landem.

Plains Indian Rock Art, by James D. Keyser and Michael A. Klassen. University of Washington Press, Seattle and UBC Press, Vancouver, 2001.


Return to top


Winter 2003, Volume 69, Number 4

Pp. 1-34: HISTORIC UTE ARCHAEOLOGY: INTERPRETING THE LAST HOUR WICKIUP (5RB3236), by Steven G. Baker

Abstract
The Last Hour Wickiup (5RB3236) in Rio Blanco County, Colorado was investigated in 1993 by Centuries Research, Inc.  The project provided an opportunity to test multiple lines of dating, initiate dialogue, and explore the usefulness of simple historical archaeological and ethnohistorical methodologies in the interpretation of the most ephemeral of Numic structural sites.  The success of the dating at this and a growing number of other regional sites demonstrates the potential for closely dating post-contact Ute sites and moving beyond minimalist taxonomic thinking. The Last Hour Wickiup's attributes contrast with those from documented historic Ute primary residential wickiups.  They are, as interpreted from multiple lines of evidence, most consistent with those of warm season Ute menstrual huts, which appear to be a diagnostic archaeological attribute of the regional Numic speakers. The site and ethnohistorical data suggest how one simple variety of traditional site architecture was still being integrated within the Utes' contact-traditional ranchería plans of their Middle Contact period ca. 1840.  This is when tepees are believed to have become commonly used as primary nuclear family residences.

Pp. 35-50: COLORADO OBSIDIAN?  PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF A STATEWIDE DATABASE OF TRACE ELEMENT ANALYSIS, by Jeffrey R. Ferguson and Craig E. Skinner

Abstract
Colorado archaeologists have noted the presence of obsidian tools and debitage in archaeological sites for decades, but have recently increased their use of trace element analysis to determine the provenance of the material.  Due to the small assemblages at all but a handful of sites, these characterization data have not been synthesized into patterns of regional lithic procurement and/or exchange.  This paper discusses some preliminary analysis of a statewide database of provenance studies, and suggests some alternatives to some of the common misconceptions about obsidian use in the region.  We also address the probability of undiscovered sources of obsidian within Colorado.  The current database of sourcing studies included here reveals a wide geographic range of sources from seven western states, and includes 19 chemically distinct sources.

Pp. 51-52: BOOK REVIEW, by Jim D. Feagins.

Silver Horn: Master Illustrator of the Kiowas, by Candace S. Greene. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 2001.


Return to top


  Spring 2004, Volume 70, Number 1

Pp. 1-16: MODELING LATE ARCHAIC/LATE PREHISTORIC SETTLEMENT AND SUBSISTENCE IN THE SAN LUIS VALLEY, COLORADO, by Bradford Andrews, Heather Mrzlack, Marilyn Martorano, Ted Hoefer III, and Wade Broadhead

Abstract:
Recent research by the Great Sand Dunes Eolian System Anthropological Project included the excavation of one thermal feature and two charcoal-stained anomalies associated with fire-cracked rock.  All three features, found in the piñon–juniper zone, yielded radiocarbon dates associated with the early Late Archaic/Late Prehistoric transitional period.  This paper explores two issues.  First, what kind of prehistoric exploitation might these features represent?  In particular, are the two shallow depressions the remains of ephemeral structures, or processing activities? Second, what do they indicate about the settlement system at the time?  Evidence from the nearby Blanca Wildlife Refuge indicates a relatively intensive exploitation of the valley-bottom lacustrine zones during this transitional period.  In contrast, these features located in the foothills may represent the seasonal occupation of the piñon–juniper belt by groups who regularly resided in the moister lacustrine areas.

Pp. 17–30: AN EXPERIMENTAL WICKIUP, by William B. Butler

Abstract:
Recent fieldwork in Rocky Mountain National Park resulted in the discovery of several collapsed wickiups of probable Ute affiliation.  An experimental wickiup was constructed in order to gain insights on construction time and effort, comfort, capacity, and other intangibles not present or easily revealed from the archaeological record.  Dead and dry aspen poles ca. 3 m in length can be easily broken off at ground level, and pine boughs to cover and waterproof the structure can be obtained from trees with a few blows of a large stick.  A ca. 2 m high wickiup consisting of about 80 poles and covered with pine boughs can be constructed by a couple of individuals in about an hour.  Because dead aspen can stand upright for 100 years or more before being collected for use in wickiups or as fire wood, they are identified as a potential source of error in the “old wood” problem n radiocarbon dating.

Pp. 31–34: BOOK REVIEW, by Ronald J. Rood.

Tracing the Past: Archaeology Along the Rocky Mountain Expansion Loop Pipeline, by E Steve Cassells. Alpine Archaeological Consultants, Montrose, Colorado, 2003.

Pg. 35: 2004 OFFICERS, COLORADO ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

Pg. 36: CHAPTERS, COLORADO ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY


Return to top


 

Spring 2004, Volume 70, Number 2

Pp. 1–32: ANALYSIS OF THE ARTIFACT COLLECTION FROM THE JARRE CREEK SITE (5DA541), A TERMINAL EARLY CERAMIC PERIOD OCCUPATION ON THE PALMER DIVIDE, COLORADO, by Kevin P. Gilmore

Hafted Bifaces from 5DA541

 

Abstract:
With funding from the Colorado Historical Society’s State Historical Fund, the Archaeological Research Institute at the University of Denver analyzed artifact collections from the Tenth Fairway, Rainbow Creek, and Jarre Creek sites in Douglas County held by the University of Denver Museum of Anthropology (DUMA).  Artifacts from the Jarre Creek site were collected during work done in the 1950s and were selected for analysis because of the previously published Late Prehistoric radiocarbon age (900 ± 250 B.P.) associated with these materials.  Two additional samples of charcoal from features on the site were processed during the current analysis and returned dates of 1100 ± 60 B.P., and 1070 ± 60 B.P.  The site is located in the northwestern corner of the Palmer Divide, an area south of Denver above 1830 m (6,000 ft) in elevation that extends from the base of the Front Range out onto the plains. The prehistory of this unique area is relatively unknown, and the information from these sites adds greatly to the corpus of knowledge regarding the prehistoric occupation of the Palmer Divide.  In addition to diagnostic projectile points, a reconstructable ceramic vessel with a decorated rim, and other flaked stone and ground stone artifacts, the site also contains the remains of one or possibly two habitation structures.  The occupants of the site utilized local lithic raw materials almost exclusively.  The Jarre Creek site is interpreted as a single occupation of relatively short duration dated to the latter part of the Early Ceramic period.

 

Pp. 33–48: TWO ANCESTRAL PUEBLOAN ARCHAEOASTRONOMICAL SOLSTICE TECHNIQUES UTILIZED IN MANCOS CANYON, COLORADO, by Virginia S. Wolf and Edward A. Wheeler

Abstract


For more than ten thousand years the Four Corners region of the Southwest United States has been inhabited by Native American societies.  Some of these were farmers, referred to today as the Ancestral Puebloans, and they created calendars to determine planting and ritual schedules.  Archaeoastronomers have located numerous ancient petroglyphs, presumably designed by these ancient farmers, to visually interact with sunlight and shadow patterns marking the solstices, equinoxes and other predictable celestial events.  Because the selected site locations are highly visible we are suggesting that these interactions served as a public display for the community at large to see.  This article will focus on two solstice-depicting sites found in Mancos Canyon, Colorado.  One location integrates petroglyph symbols with sunlight and shadow patterns to define both solstices, and the other utilizes an “effigy” shadow and man-made hole to display the winter solstice.

Pg. 49: INTRODUCING A NEW CAS CHAPTER, by Peter Faris

 


Return to top


  Fall 2004, Volume 70, Number 3

 

DAVID A. BRETERNITZ: RETROSPECTIVE OF A SOUTHWESTERN ARCHAEOLOGIST, compiled By Elizabeth A. Morris and Barbara B. Breternitz

    [Note: This expanded issue honoring the career of David Breternitz

    includes many short articles almost all of which lack abstracts]

 

 

Pp. 3-4:     TABLE OF CONTENTS
Pp. 5-6:     INTRODUCTION, by Elizabeth Ann Morris 
Pp. 7-13:   DAVE ALAN BRETERNITZ: ALIVE AND WELL IN 2004,

                        by Alexander J. Lindsay, Jr. and Jane Lindsey
Pp. 14-15:  DAVE BRETERNITZ AS AN UNDERGRADUATE ARCHAEOLOGY STUDENT

                        AT THE UNIVERSITY OF DENVER, by Sarah M. Nelson
Pp. 16-17:  KNOWING DAVE AND BARBARA BRETERNITZ FOR OVER 50 YEARS, by Earl Ingmanson
Pp. 18-19:  DAVE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA ARCHAEOLOGICAL FIELD SCHOOL

                        AT POINT OF PINES, by Ernest Leavitt
Pp. 20-26:  DAVID ALAN BRETERNITZ: AN IMPORTANT INFLUENCE IN MY LIFE,

                        by Elizabeth Ann Morris
Pg. 27:       I REMEMBER DAVE AT THE MUSEUM OF NORTHERN ARIZONA, by James "Murph" Murphy
Pp. 28-39:  POINT OF PINES TO CHACO CANYON: A BRIEF PHOTO ESSAY IN RECOGNITION

                        OF DAVID A. BRETERNITZ, by Christy G. Turner II

ABSTRACT


A personal account of David A. Breternitz is presented in a photo essay covering the years 1955–1997. It touches on only a few of the many events he and his family have shared with various mutual friends and my family and I. It is an historical account only in the sense that the dates and events are accurate and documented by photographs. Some of the comments are only opinions and should be viewed as such.  

Pp. 40-41: DAVID A. BRETERNITZ, ARCHAEOLOGIST? by Bearclaw Bannister
Pp. 42-44: FRIENDSHIPS THAT LAST A LIFETIME,
by Cal Calabrese
Pp. 45-48: LIFE WITH DAVE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT BOULDER,
by Payson Sheets

Pp. 49-50: DAB AND THE UNKNOWN OBJECT,
by Larry L. Leach

Pp. 51-52: A QUESTION OF WHO WORKS FOR WHOM, by Bruce A. Anderson
Pg. 53: DAVE BRETERNITZ IN AFRICA, 1967–1968,
by Thurston Shaw
Pp. 54-57: ADDITIONAL ANECDOTES FROM THE AFRICAN EXPERIENCE,
by David and Barbara Breternitz

Pp. 58-62: THE RUTTED ROAD FROM FIELD SCHOOL TO CAREERS,
by Jenny (Metzger) Adams and Todd Metzger
Pp. 63-64: DAVE BRETERNITZ AND THE PLAINS,
by Mike Metcalf
Pp. 65-66: DAVE, BRUCE, AND LARRY PLAY CARDS,
by Larry (full name withheld upon request)

Pp. 67-69: DAVE: EDUCATOR AND EXAMPLE,
by Mark Stiger
Pp. 70-72: DR. DAVE,
by Scott L. Carpenter
Pp. 73-74: THE MEANING OF GLUE,
by Kevin Black
Pp. 75-78: WHY ARE KIVAS ROUND?
by Richard Wilshusen

Pp. 79-89: KEY POINTS FROM PALEO NOTES AND COLLECTIONS, by Dennis J. Stanford and Margaret A. Jodry
Pp. 90-94: DAVID ALAN BRETERNITZ: A TRIBUTE,
by Cory Dale Breternitz
Pp. 95-100: THE LEGACY OF SOUTH GAP,
by Cory Dale Breternitz and Scott Carpenter
Pp. 101-102: DAVE, MY NEIGHBOR,
by Mike Coffey
Pp. 103-104: DAVE BRETERNITZ: MY DAD,
by Susan Breternitz Goulding
Pp. 105-106: MY DADDY, MY FRIEND,
by Nancy Breternitz Steele
Pp. 107-108: MY 50 YEARS WITH DAVID A. BRETERNITZ,
by Barbara Breternitz
Pp. 109-110: YOU’RE NEVER TOO OLD TO BE IMMATURE,
by Jerry Fetterman

Pp. 111-112: DAVID A. BRETERNITZ: CURRICULUM VITUM
Pp. 113-115: DAVID A. BRETERNITZ FIELD PROJECTS SINCE RETIREMENT (MAY 1986)
Pp. 116-124: BIBLIOGRAPHY OF DAVID ALAN BRETERNITZ


Return to top


 

 Winter 2004, Volume 70, Number 4

Pp. 1-4: WILLIAM BUCKLES: A BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH, by Ed Simonich

Pp. 5-25: Colorado Prehistoric resource spatial interpolation using a kernel Density estimate (kde) method, by Todd C. McMahon

 

ABSTRACT

This paper focuses on the analysis of prehistoric cultural resource locational information using the OAHP Geographical Information System (GIS) in conjunction with database queries and the ESRI ArcView software to evaluate major temporal and cultural resource-specific trends.  In this context, Kernel Density Estimate (KDE) interpolation is used as a method to easily discern these broad trends and resource clustering from a basic visual perspective.  Several temporal periods are analyzed and examples presented, using an archaeologically defined cultural region and two examples of site types across the state of Colorado.  Several limitations and database assumptions are then evaluated in relation to this method.  With an understanding of these database assumptions and allowing for the limitations, KDE can be an effective tool for archeological spatial inquiry and management.

 

Pp. 26-37: HISTORIC ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE SOUTH CANYON COAL CAMP SITE, by Jean Edmonds

 
ABSTRACT
 

A field survey of the South Canyon Coal Camp (also know as South Canon) was conducted during the summers of 1999 – 2000. The survey trained people from our Chapter who had taken the Program for Avocational Archaeological Certification (PAAC) Survey class and they in turn assisted others with the knowledge they had learned.  Each time a group did work on the site, the leader was someone who had taken the class.  This paper reports our findings at the site and also information obtained by taking oral histories.  Research found that there was an earlier town site, which does not have any remnants of any buildings.  The second town, the one we did work on, does have brick and rock building walls and foundations.  As the coal mines became more dangerous and less productive, the mines shut down and the town was abandoned.  Anything, including building materials was used elsewhere over he years, leaving only the brick and rock walls and foundations.

 

Pp. 38-39: BOOK REVIEW, by Gordon C. Tucker, Jr.

The Chaco Handbook: An Encyclopedic Guide, by F. Gwinn Vivian and Bruce Hilpert.  The University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, 2002.


Return to top


Spring 2005, Volume 71, Number 1

Pp. 1-38: DECADAL INDEX, VOLUMES 61–70, 1995–2004, by Kevin D. Black

            No abstracts appear in this issue. The contents of the index are as follows:

Pp. 3-11: VOLUME INDEX
Pp. 12-21: AUTHOR INDEX
Pp. 22-27: TITLE INDEX
Pg. 28: OBITUARY INDEX
Pp. 29-31: BOOK REVIEW INDEX
Pg. 32: ADVERTISEMENTS
Pg. 32: ERRATA
Pg. 33: CAS ORGANIZATION ANNOUNCEMENTS
Pp. 34-35: CAS PRESIDENTS AND EXECUTIVE SECRETARIES
Pg. 36: C. T. HURST AWARD WINNERS
Pg. 36: IVOL K. HAGAR AWARDS
Pg. 37: CHAPTER ACHIEVEMENT AWARDS
Pg. 38: SOUTHWESTERN LORE EDITORS
Pg. 39: 2005 OFFICERS, COLORADO ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY
Pg. 40: CHAPTERS, COLORADO ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

 


Return to top


 

Summer 2005, Volume 71, Number 2

 

Pp. 1–31: THE DISMAL RIVER COMPLEX IN EASTERN COLORADO: A VIEW FROM THE PINNACLE SITE (5PA1764), by Gordon C. Tucker Jr., Marcia J. Tate, Bill Tate, and Juston J. Fariello

 

ABSTRACT

 

         The Pinnacle site (5PA1764), located on a rocky outcrop near Eleven Mile Canyon Reservoir in Park County, was discovered during a land exchange survey between the Denver Water Board and USDA Forest Service.  In the fall of 2002 and spring 2003, Tate & Associates conducted data recovery at the site, which resulted in the identification of a concentration of heat-treated lithic flakes, a stone circle with an interior hearth, and a badly eroded exterior hearth.  The first two features yielded radiocarbon and thermoluminescent age estimates that place site occupation(s) between A.D. 1400 and 1620.  The recovery of several sherds of Western Dismal River variant pottery, with a probable age range of A.D. 1525–1725, corroborates these chronometric estimates.  A culturally scarred tree found at the north end of the site was peeled at ca. A.D. 1893, and thus reflects a later aboriginal use of the site.  Obsidian flakes found on the site were sourced to Obsidian Cliff in Yellowstone National Park.  The age and artifact assemblage of Pinnacle site is comparable to several other sites in the Colorado mountains east of the Continental Divide.  These similarities suggest that Athapaskan-speaking, proto-Apachean people, bearing a distinctive ceramic tradition, moved from the Plains into the mountains of Colorado during the fifteenth century A.D. and exploited the region’s abundant natural resources.  These people had direct or indirect connections with groups in the Northern and Southern Rocky Mountains, Southern Plains, and Southwest, with whom they exchanged raw materials, such as obsidian and amazonite, and cultural ideas.  Investigations at the Pinnacle site have improved our knowledge and understanding of human occupation of the Colorado mountains during a tumultuous period near the end of the prehistoric era.

 

 

Pp. 32–40: ARCHAIC ART, by Thomas Lewis

 

ABSTRACT

         The glyphs at Hamilton Dome, Wyoming (“Legend Rock”) can be understood, in part, as a conjunction of images of shamans and their animal companions or transforms with a belief system incorporating dominating and hostile supernatural personages.

 

 

Pp. 41–43: BOOK REVIEW, by Steven G. Baker

 

Celestials and Soiled Doves: The Archaeology and History of Lots 4–9, Block 13 of Historic Prescott’s Original Townsite—The Prescott City Center Project, by  Michael S. Foster, John M. Lindly, and Ronald F. Ryden.  SWCA Environmental Consultants, Cultural Resource Report No. 03–386, Phoenix, 2004

 

 


Return to top


 Fall 2005, Volume 71, Number 3
Pp. 1-2: J. KEITH ABERNATHY 1953-2005, by Marcia and Bill Tate [Obituary, no abstract]

Pp. 3-27: CARTRIDGES, CAPS, AND FLINTS: A PRIMER FOR ARCHAEOLOGISTS, by Peter J. Gleichman and Dock M. Teegarden

ABSTRACT

            Gunflints, percussion caps, cartridge cases, and bullets are durable artifacts that may provide temporal and functional data.  Loaded metallic ammunition was introduced in the 1860s and quickly replaced muzzle loaded flintlock and caplock ammunition.  Loaded or self-contained metallic cartridges consist of a metal case, primer, powder charge, and bullet.  The American caliber identification or cartridge designation standards are a complex, confusing and inconsistent series of nonsystematic conventions.  The development and changes in cartridge cases, ignition or priming systems, powder, and bullets are documented, and some of the changes are time markers.  Cartridge cases with or without headstamps can be identified, and the process for doing so is presented.  Once identified, the date of introduction, period of manufacture, intended use, and firearm(s) for which the cartridge was designed can be determined.

 


Return to top


Winter 2005, Volume 71, Number 4

 

Pp. 3–16: UTE SITE STRUCTURE AS REVEALED AT TWO HABITATION SITES IN THE SOUTHERN ROCKY MOUNTAINS, by Rand A. Greubel

 

ABSTRACT

         The excavation of relatively large areas of two sites in the southern Rocky Mountains has yielded a wealth of data relevant to the Ute lifeway during the late Protohistoric and early Historic periods.  In particular, distinctive spatial patterning on Ute habitation sites has been revealed.  The most prominent of these patterns are described in this paper, and their usefulness in addressing a variety of research domains—as well as their value as potential ethnic indicators—are discussed.

 

 

Pp. 17–34: SETTLEMENT AND SUBSISTENCE DURING THE FORMATIVE ERA IN WEST-CENTRAL COLORADO, by Alan D. Reed

 

ABSTRACT

Although there is limited evidence of relatively sedentary farming hamlets in west-central Colorado during the Formative era, most of the region’s inhabitants appear to have maintained a subsistence system based on foraging.  Until the completion of the TransColorado Natural Gas Pipeline mitigation project, few excavation data were available for the region’s Formative-era sites, especially those apparently related to foraging activities.  The TransColorado Pipeline project yielded substantial data from nine Formative-era components north of the Anasazi homeland.  These data permit refinement of interpretations of Formative-era lifeways.  Radiocarbon data suggest that populations were relatively high.  To cope with pressure on the region’s carrying capacity, some of the region’s Formative-era peoples may have practiced limited horticulture, with relatively little investment of labor, and expanded the breadth of exploited wild plant food resources.  Cultural changes were substantial, and the Formative-era lifeway cannot be construed as a continuation of Archaic-era lifeways.  The end of the Formative era in west-central Colorado appears to have been marked by a population decline.  Although the reasons for the population decline are unknown, the demographic shift appears to have made possible a lifeway that was more highly mobile and that was able to eliminate horticulture and reduce diet breadth.

 

 

Pp. 35–51: CERAMIC RAW MATERIALS USED BY HISTORIC NATIVE PEOPLES OF NORTHWESTERN NEW MEXICO AND WESTERN COLORADO, by David V. Hill

 

ABSTRACT

         The goal of this research is to examine the distribution of different ceramic paste compositions to see how such information might correlate with the distribution of Navajo and Ute peoples as described in contemporary accounts during the Protohistoric and early Historic periods in western Colorado and northwestern New Mexico.  If pottery from dated early historic sites is produced using distinctive locally available materials, and found within the historically documented homeland of a specific ethnic group, then some degree of cultural association may be represented.  Through the use of petrographic analysis, it has been possible to identify regional variations within the pastes of ceramics produced by Navajo and Ute peoples of northwestern New Mexico and western Colorado.  Characterization of local ceramic pastes has also elicited evidence of trade in ceramic vessels within and between Navajos and Utes.

 

 

Pp. 52–70: The Shavano Valley Rock Art Site and Western Colorado Rock Art Studies Through Time, by Jonathon C. Horn

 

ABSTRACT

         The Shavano Valley Rock Art site (5MN5), on the edge of the Uncompahgre Plateau just west of Montrose, Colorado, has been the focus of regional rock art research for the last 100 years.  Rock art at the site evidently dates from the Archaic period through historic times.  Not only is the site captivating because of the art’s motifs and complexity, attempts at discerning its meaning epitomizes anthropological thought and trends in rock art research to the present time.  It can be expected that the rock art at the site will retain its importance to individuals or members of cultural groups and will continue to be the subject for interpretation as anthropological thought evolves.

 

 

Pp. 71–78: REPORT OF SIGNIFICANT INVESTIGATIONS 1992–2003: ANTHROPOLOGY DEPARTMENT, UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT COLORADO SPRINGS, by William R. Arbogast, Minette C. Church, and Thomas G. Wynn

 

ABSTRACT

         The Anthropology Department, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, conducted archaeological investigations from 1992 through 2003 through annual field schools, cultural resource management consultant contracts, and volunteer efforts in support of the City of Colorado Springs.  Investigations include survey, testing and excavation, and focus on both prehistoric and historical resources.  Areas investigated are in Bent, Douglas, El Paso, Las Animas, and Teller Counties.  Survey areas range from the 17,000 acre Air Force Academy to 240 acres in the Pike National Forest.  Excavations were conducted at sites with prehistoric occupations from the Middle Archaic to Protohistoric periods, including one Developmental period burial, and at historical sites as various as the 1860s Boggsville settlement, Bent’s New Fort and Fort Wise, and the Bent Canyon Stage station in Las Animas County.

 

 

Pp. 79–80: BOOK REVIEW, by Gordon C. Tucker, Jr.

 

This Land of Shining Mountains: Archaeological Studies in Colorado’s Indian Peaks Wilderness Area, edited by E. Steve Cassells.  Center for Mountain Archeology, Research Report No. 8, Ward, Colorado, 2000

 


Return to top


Spring 2006, Volume 72, Number 1

 

Pp. 1–25:  GOIN’ DOWN TO SOUTH PARK: THE PLACE OF THE COLUMBINE RANCH SITE (5PA2457) WITHIN A PREHISTORIC CONTEXT OF PARK COUNTY, by Sean Larmore and Kevin P. Gilmore

 

ABSTRACT

The Columbine Ranch site (5PA2457) is located on privately owned property, on the west side of Kenosha Pass at the north end of South Park. The site is a dense surface scatter of lithic debitage and diagnostic stone tools representing Late Paleoindian, Early Archaic, and Late Archaic period occupations. These occupations at the Columbine Ranch are placed into a rapidly growing database of cultural components documented by recent academic and cultural resource management work conducted in the area, and reflect the occupational history unique to Park County. Occupational trends through time between Park County and the Platte River Basin are compared using an Index of Occupational Intensity (IOI), which is a data transformation method that converts the number of prehistoric components assigned to a particular cultural history period in a given area to a number that is normalized using the length of the culture history period and the percentage of the total number of components assignable to periods in the area in question. This allows comparisons in numbers of components between periods of different lengths and areas of different sizes and different numbers of components. We use the IOI number as a measure of the relative intensity of prehistoric occupation of an area. Data generated by this method suggest that there are several periods for which there are significant disparities in prehistoric occupation between Park County and the Platte River Basin as a whole.

 

 

Pp. 26–43: ICE PATCHES AND REMNANT GLACIERS: PALEONTOLOGICAL DISCOVERIES AND ARCHEOLOGICAL POSSIBILITIES IN THE COLORADO HIGH COUNTRY, by Craig M. Lee, James B. Benedict, and Jennie B. Lee

 

Abstract

In recent decades archeological and paleontological remains have melted out of glaciers and ice patches on several continents, including North America. During the summer of 2002, hikers discovered the remains of bison (Bison bison), bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and elk (Cervus elaphus) in association with three high-altitude ice patches in the Rocky Mountains west of Boulder, Colorado. Bison have been extinct in the region since the late 1870s. Radiocarbon dates for the bison specimens range from 2280 ± 30 BP to 210 ± 60 BP. Carbon isotope (δ13C) values for the bison specimens range from –19.6 ± 1‰ to –13.7 ± 1‰, suggesting the animals spent time at lower elevations as well as in the high mountains. Although no definitive association between the paleontological specimens and native peoples can be demonstrated, Colorado ice patches may yet prove to contain evidence of prehistoric human activity. The possibility that humans and game animals exploited these frozen features prehistorically suggests promising new areas for archeological and paleontological research in the western United States. Survival of ancient bison remains in these environments implies that ice has existed almost continuously in these cirques for at least two millennia. Today’s extreme melting is atypical.

 

Pp. 44–45: 2005 C.T. HURST AWARD: DR. MARGARET (PEGI) ANN JODRY, by Terri Hoff

 

Pg. 46: ERRATA, for the Fall 2005 issue of Southwestern Lore (Vol. 71, No. 3), regarding the article "Cartridges, Caps, and Flints: a Primer for Archaeologists," by Peter J. Gleichman and Dock M. Teegarden

 

Pg. 46: 2006 OFFICERS, COLORADO ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

Pg. 47: LOCAL CHAPTERS, COLORADO ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

Pg. 48: COLORADO ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, PUBLICATIONS AVAILABLE FOR ORDER

 


Return to top


 

Summer 2006, Volume 72, Number 2

 

Pp. 1–14: Easterday II Cache: A Flake Core Cache from Weld County, Colorado, by Matthew P. Basham and

Steven R. Holen

 

ABSTRACT

Robert Easterday discovered the Easterday II Cache at Riverside Reservoir in Weld County, Colorado and later donated it to the Denver Museum of Nature & Science.  The cache consists of 102 artifacts including 99 flake cores, two bifaces, and one unifacial scraper.  All artifacts are made from White River Group Silicates (Flattop chalcedony); the nearest outcrop of this material is at Flattop Butte some 97 km east-northeast of Riverside Reservoir.  Flake cores exhibit a broad size range from large cores to small, expended cores indicating that several stages of reduction are present.  A discussion of the potential use of the flake cores is presented.  Two smaller cores were transformed into bifaces during the reduction sequence.  The age of the cache has been the subject of some speculation.  Dr. Marie Wormington thought the cache might be Paleoindian.  Our research and comparison with similar technologies from a site near Flattop Butte and another site in southwest Nebraska suggests that this cache is Late Prehistoric.

 

 

Pp. 15–31:  The Promise of GEOCOMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS For Prehistoric Landscapes: ILLUSTRATIONS FROM THE MESA VERDE REGION, by Todd C. McMahon

 

ABSTRACT

This study builds on an earlier statewide GIS analysis of documented archaeological sites in Colorado.  It focuses on Pueblo era (A.D. 600 to 1280) archaeological sites in a much smaller area in southwestern Colorado and uses a very refined data set.  Site data from the Colorado State Historic Preservation Office and the McElmo-Yellow Jacket Settlement Model generated by Crow Canyon Archaeological Center and Washington State University were used in this study.  These data allowed much greater temporal precision and finer understanding of prehistoric settlement patterning than is common in most archaeological models.  Because the data incorporate information about turbulent changes at prehistoric community centers as well as population estimates for fourteen modeling periods over a 680-year period, it is possible to consider how and why settlement patterns may have shifted during these turbulent times.  Pueblo I and Pueblo III population movements illustrate critical points within the settlement history of this northernmost region of the Ancestral Puebloan world.

 


Return to top


 

Fall 2006, Volume 72, Number 3

 

Pp. 1–27:  EDGE-GROUND COBBLE TOOLS OF THE PIÑON CANYON MANEUVER SITE, SOUTHEAST COLORADO, by Mark Owens

 

 ABSTRACT

Several seasons of archaeological field work at the U.S. Army’s Piñon Canyon Maneuver Site in southeastern Colorado have produced over ninety-two edge-ground cobble tools.  Similar artifacts have been recovered from sites in the Great Plains, the American Southwest, the Pacific Northwest, and Puerto Rico.  These have been interpreted as tools used for vegetal material processing, lithic reduction, or hide working.  This article reports on the results of an experiment designed to evaluate wear patterns on edge-ground cobbles and builds upon the use-wear analysis work of Jenny Adams and Brian Hayden for artifacts used during the hide working process.  Utilizing a scanning electron microscope, this project evaluates the worked surfaces of prehistoric edge-ground cobbles, as well as those of a prehistorically modified metate and experimentally produced edge-ground cobble and mano.  Results are compared with previous interpretations.  Other lines of evidence are consulted, including contextual archaeological data, information gleaned from the ethnographic record, use-wear studies, and analytical or behavioral data extracted from analysis of the Piñon Canyon artifacts.

 

 

Pp. 27–37: THE MAKING OF A BIOLOGIST: E. R. WARREN AND THE BOOMTOWN OF GOTHIC, by Jonathon C. Horn

 

ABSTRACT

         Archaeological monitoring at the Gothic Town Hall by Alpine Archaeological Consultants, Inc. resulted in the detection of important artifacts from the early days of the mining town of Gothic in Gunnison County, Colorado.  Further archaeological investigations recovered an unusual assemblage of materials, including faunal remains and scientific artifacts, which spurred historical research to find an explanation.  The surprising result was that we had found the 1882–1883 assay office and laboratory of E. R. Warren, who later became the preeminent biologist in Colorado.

 

 

Pp. 38–39: BOOK REVIEW, by Jim D. Feagins

 

Material Meanings: Critical Approaches to the Interpretation of Material Culture, edited by Elizabeth S. Chilton.  Foundations of Archaeological Inquiry series.  University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, 1999

 

 


Return to top


 

Winter 2006, Volume 72, Number 4

 

Pp. 1–26: BUILDING AN HISTORICAL ARCHAEOLOGY OF COLORADO: PERSONAL REFLECTIONS REGARDING OUR VICTORIAN PERIOD RESOURCE BASE, by Steven G. Baker

 

ABSTRACT

This essay addresses the evolution of my thoughts regarding the challenges, and the processes which will need to be relied upon, in building a truly useful historical archaeological database for Colorado by traditional archaeological methods which emphasize the material culture record.  Colorado’s Euro-American historical archaeological record is dominated by sites from ca. 1865–1918 when the very complex American expression of Victorianism dominated the cultural profile of the United States.  The difficulty of conducting meaningful archaeological studies of this cultural context challenges the existing method and theory of historical archaeology.  In beginning to build a database I emphasize simple taxonomic order and consistency in data collection and the use of both quantified and humanistic approaches in interpretation relative to the study of Victorian sites and culture.  I update definitions of American Victorian culture and related critical terms and concepts.  While I vigorously defend the practice of historical archaeology, I do candidly question its limitations and potentials relative to the Victorian context since it is probably the latest one in the U.S. which is even remotely amenable to routine archaeological study.  Building a useful historical archaeology database will require the creative, integrated and sustained efforts of many dedicated practitioners for generations just as it has for earlier contexts in U.S. history.  Achievable contribution potentials of historical archaeology of the Victorian period will only be understood after this database is compiled and evaluated. 

 

Pp. 27–32: TWO PLANT FOODS AVAILABLE TO PREHISTORIC INDIANS:  NUTRITIONAL CONTENT OF PINUS PONDEROSA NUTS AND RHUS TRILOBATA (SKUNKBRUSH) FRUIT FROM THE PLAINS-FOOTHILLS ECOTONE,

by Elizabeth Ann Morris

 

ABSTRACT

The nutritional content of wild plants occurring in the Rocky Mountain-High Plains ecotone of northeastern Colorado is of importance in reconstructing prehistoric subsistence economy.  Rhus trilobata and Pinus ponderosa produce abundant fruit and nuts respectively.  Different kinds of utilization are described in the ethnographic literature.  Sample specimens were analyzed for their nutritional content.  They were both found to contain useful amounts of a number of trace elements and minerals.  Ponderosa pine nuts contain significant amounts of protein and fat while the R. trilobata would contribute mostly carbohydrates and fiber.  The pine nuts would provide almost twice as many calories per unit volume as the R. trilobata fruit.

 


Return to top


 

Spring 2007, Volume 73, Number 1

 

 Pp. 1–37:  Results of Recent Survey Along the Arikaree River Drainage, Eastern Colorado,

 by Mark P. Muniz, Steven R. Holen, and David W. May

 

ABSTRACT

Results of a pedestrian survey of 1,599.75 hectares (3,950 acres) along the Arikaree River in Kit Carson, Lincoln, and Yuma counties, Colorado are presented.  Forty-four new archaeological sites and 97 isolated finds provide substantive new data on prehistoric occupation patterns in this otherwise unknown region of Colorado.  Sites representing Paleoindian, Early, Middle and Late Archaic, Late Prehistoric, and Historic periods were recorded and several hold the potential to make important contributions to what we currently know about human occupation on the eastern plains of Colorado.  Raw material studies indicate locally occurring quartzites and silicified woods were relied upon heavily during every prehistoric period.  However, exotics including White River Group chalcedony (probably Flattop Butte), Smoky Hill jasper, and Alibates agatized dolomite from Texas offer preliminary clues regarding settlement patterns on the central and western Plains.  Geomorphological analyses have identified the Paleoindian-aged Brady Soil (or its alluvial equivalent) in the upper and lower stretches of the river, as well as a relatively widespread 4,000-year-old soil that provides a reliable stratigraphic marker for Middle Archaic and later occupations.  Finally, upland playas were identified as playing a key role in settlement strategies for all prehistoric groups, regardless of changes in subsistence strategy that occurred from the Paleoindian through Late Prehistoric periods.

 

Pp. 38–40: BOOK REVIEW, by Bradford W. Andrews

Chimney Rock: The Ultimate Outlier, edited by J. McKim Malville.  Lexington Books, Lanham, Maryland, 2004.

 

Pp. 41–42: BOOK REVIEW, by Gordon C. Tucker, Jr.

The Mesa Verde World: Explorations in Ancestral Pueblo Archaeology, edited by David Grant Noble.  School of American Research Press, Santa Fe, 2006

 

Pg. 43: 2007 OFFICERS, COLORADO ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

Pg. 44: LOCAL CHAPTERS, COLORADO ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

 


Return to top


 

Summer 2007, Volume 73, Number 2

 

REMEMBERING CARLYLE “SQUINT” MOORE:  AVOCATIONAL ARCHAEOLOGIST OF THE UNCOMPAHGRE PLATEAU, compiled by Alan D. Reed

 

[Note: this expanded issue honoring the life of Squint Moore includes many articles, all of which lack abstracts; please note page numbers below are corrected from those erroneously published in the issue’s Table of Contents]

 

Pg. 2: TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Pg. 3: INTRODUCTION, by Alan D. Reed

 

Pp. 4-22: YOUNG SCIENTISTS OF THE ROUBIDEAU, by Steven G. Baker

 

Pp. 23-28: MY NEIGHBOR SQUINT, by Neil Hauser

 

Pp. 29-42: SQUINT MOORE AND ROCK ART, by Carol Patterson

 

Pp. 43-45: REFLECTING ON SQUINT, by Bill Harris

 

Pp. 46-47: FLINT CAVE PROJECT AND SQUINT MOORE, by Charles Richey

 

Pp. 48-50: MEMORIES OF SQUINT MOORE, by Charles Richey

 

Pp. 51-52: THE CORPS OF DISCOVERY II, by Phil and Carol Nesius

 

Pg. 53: BY JEEP AND CANOE, by Alex and Laurie Labak

 

Pp. 54-55: A WALK WITH SQUINT, by Sharon R. Manhart

 


Return to top


 

Fall 2007, Volume 73, Number 3

 

Pp. 1–20:  GUNS, FIRE AND SHEEP: HISTORY AND ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE TRUJILLO HOMESTEADS, TWO EARLY HISPANIC-AMERICAN SITES IN THE SAN LUIS VALLEY, COLORADO, by R. Laurie Simmons and Marilyn A. Martorano

 

ABSTRACT

The Teofilo Trujillo homestead (5AL791) and the Pedro Trujillo homestead (5AL706) are two recently documented historic resources in the San Luis Valley, Colorado.  These sites were occupied from as early as 1866 through 1902 by the Trujillo family of Hispanic-American ranchers/early homesteaders.   The Trujillo sites are important for their historical associations, architecture, and archaeology.   These sites and have yielded significant information about early lifeways of Hispanic-American homesteaders, their interactions with other cultures, and their struggles to survive during an episode of cattle and sheep raiser conflicts and violence in the San Luis Valley.  

 

Pp. 21–44:  ASSESSING INTEGRITY AT THE PALEOINDIAN–HISTORIC CAPITOL CITY MORAINE SITE (5HN510), HINSDALE COUNTY, COLORADO, by Bonnie L. Pitblado, C. W. Merriman, and Caroline Gabe

 

ABSTRACT

This paper presents a case study for assessing site integrity at a multi-component locality in the Colorado high country.  When first recorded in 1995, the Capitol City Moraine site (5HN510) yielded a Paleoindian spear point and evidence for historic occupation, together with sufficient potential for buried cultural remains that the site was assessed as potentially eligible for the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP).  Shortly thereafter, the Colorado Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation (OAHP) listed the site in their files as officially eligible for the NRHP.  A full-fledged archaeological assessment conducted a decade later used an array of analytical devices to demonstrate that the integrity—and NRHP eligibility—at 5HN510 have been irretrievably compromised.  This paper outlines the assessment’s findings, focusing on six lines of evidence that underlie the interpretation that both the prehistoric and historic components of the site lack integrity.

 

Pp. 45–47:  BOOK REVIEWS, by Robert J. Mutaw

 Looting Spiro Mounds: An American King Tut’s Tomb, by David LaVere.  University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 2007

 Encyclopedia of the Great Plains Indians, edited by David J. Wishart.  University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, 2007

 

Pg. 48: ERRATUM, for the Summer 2007 issue of Southwestern Lore (Vol. 73, No. 2), regarding incorrect page numbers in the Table of Contents

 


Return to top


 

Winter 2007, Volume 73, Number 4

 

Pp. 1–15:  SYMBOLS OF HOMESTEADING: SCROUNGERS, SQUATTERS, AND SETTLERS, by William G. Buckles (1931-2004), edited by Steven G. Baker and E. Steve Cassells

 

ABSTRACT

Some of the strategies and processes of change related to homesteading can be predicted and tested with evidence from archaeological and various types of historical sources.  Other types of rural occupations can often be confused with true homesteading.  Some material evidence can be viewed as symbols of specific strategies and processes related to homesteading and to the other types of occupations.  This paper presents the historical archaeological evidence to support Bill Buckles’ provisional model of three basic rural “homestead like” settlement categories in western Colorado.  These categories are scroungers, squatters, and settlers.  These types of settlements can be identified through use of a “scalogram of commitment” to the land.  Buckles believed that scroungers show the least evidence of such commitment on the scalogram while true settlers show the most.

 

 

Pp. 16–36:  THE TURTLE: A MANCOS CANYON ARCHAEOASTRONOMY PETROGLYPHIC SHRINE/ALTAR SITE,

by Virginia Wolf and Edward Wheeler

 

ABSTRACT

We anticipate this article will add to the growing body of literature concerning Basketmaker/ Ancestral Puebloan archaeoastronomy sites.  Our focal point is a petroglyph site in Ute Tribal Park, Mancos Canyon, Colorado.  As explained below, we have named this location the Turtle site.  It is a complex winter solstice petroglyph site with three concurrent sun/shadow interactions with manmade features.  The nature of the associated rock art, located in a shallow rockshelter, leads us to believe that the site served as a shrine, and likely was the location for an altar.

 


Return to top


 

Spring 2008, Volume 74, Number 1

Pp. 1-41:  TRAILS, TRADE, AND WEST-CENTRAL COLORADO’S GATEWAY TRADITION: ETHNOHISTORICAL OBSERVATIONS, by Steven G. Baker

 

ABSTRACT

The term “Gateway tradition” has been invoked by others to describe and attempt to taxonomically classify some regionally atypical Formative Era archaeological sites in west-central Colorado. This paper summarizes the ethnohistory of the territory ascribed to the Gateway tradition and demonstrates that it enfolds a critically strategic trail system. This system includes the primary access routes to the three most important travel gateways between the Continental Divide and the Colorado River canyons below Moab, Utah.  These topographic gateways connected the Southwest culture area with the remote interior to the north of the Colorado River. The gateways are on the Colorado River at Moab, Utah, at the Colorado’s confluence with the Dolores River, and on the Gunnison River at Delta, Colorado. The peoples responsible for the Gateway tradition were situated where they might well have controlled/ regulated access from the greater Southwest to and perhaps through these critical gateways. From this strategic location they could also have easily exploited, for trade and subsistence purposes, local deposits of salt and the substantial herds of mule deer, elk, and other large mammals in the region. They thus could have readily obtained quantities of salt, dried meat, and tanned hides as well as varied other commodities funneled to them by peoples to the north and south of the Colorado River. A combined ethnohistorical and archaeological perspective suggests that the Gateway tradition very likely developed from horticulturists who were also specialized hunters and traders within an indigenous nation-to-nation trade system. Regardless of what physical, linguistic, or ethnic background its people may have come from, the evidence suggests that it is highly predictable that just such a specialized, or even a hybrid, culture would have developed in precisely the region where it is today recognized by archaeologists. The author closes with a brief exploration of some of the mechanisms that may have led to the development of the Gateway manifestation as described by others.

 


Return to top


 

 

Summer 2008, Volume 74, Number 2

 

Page 1 – 29:   FALCON’S NEST SITE (5JF211): A 30-YEAR RETROSPECTIVE

PART 1: THE FALCON’S NEST STORY, by Lucy Burris, Anne Winslow, and J. Frank Adkins

 

ABSTRACT

This report summarizes archaeological field and analysis work conducted by members of the Denver Chapter of the Colorado Archaeological Society between 1976 and 1979 at Falcon’s Nest (5JF211) rockshelter in Jefferson County, Colorado.  Middle

to Late Archaic and Early Ceramic occupations contribute to our understanding of long-term use of the Hogback Valley. Two relatively well preserved burials containing three individuals, the presence of locally procured lithics and ground stone, off-site manufacture of ceramics, intense processing of deer and near absence of bison, and use of both interior and exterior spaces with hearths suggest limited mobility and some degree of residential sedentism during occupation. Use seasonality could not be established; however, the strong southern exposure of the rockshelter would be a benefit in mitigating winter cold and a drawback to summer usage.

 

Pp. 30-47:  FALCON’S NEST SITE (5JF211): A 30-YEAR RETROSPECTIVE

PART 2: BEHIND THE SCENES, by Lucy Burris, Anne Winslow, and J. Frank Adkins

 

ABSTRACT

This report provides support material for Falcon’s Nest site (5JF211) Part I and an aid to researchers interested in accessing information in the published site report.  Useful details available here include a glossary, a complete table of contents for the published site report, and tables of various artifact and feature results. Tables include lithic material description, mano geometry, minor faunal representation by species, and hearth size and contents.

 

 

 

 


Return to top


 

Fall/Winter 2008, Volume 74, Nos. 3 & 4

 

Pp. 1–21:  CRAIG SANDROCKS: HISTORIC PLAINS HORSE PETROGLYPHS IN NORTHWESTERN COLORADO,

by James D. Keyser

 

ABSTRACT

Historic period rock art in western Colorado is predominantly Ute and Navajo horse and rider images, while rock art of the same time period in southwestern Wyoming’s Green River Basin shows typical Northwestern Plains equestrian art that was apparently drawn by artists from the Northern Shoshone and other Plains tribes.  Recent work at the Craig Sandrocks petroglyph site, located on the Yampa River in northwestern Colorado, recorded a group of previously unpublished horse images that appear to be stylistically more like those of the Green River Basin. These horses indicate that in Historic times this part of northwestern Colorado was heavily used by Northern Plains tribes.

 


Return to top


 

Spring/Summer 2009, Volume 75, Nos. 1 & 2:  Colorado Archaeology

 

Pp. 3 – 29INVESTIGATIONS AT 5GN149, A LITHIC WORKSHOP IN THE UPPER GUNNISON BASIN, COLORADO,

by Judith R. Cooper and David J. Meltzer

 

ABSTRACT

5GN149 is a lithic workshop on a high bench overlooking the Gunnison River in western Colorado. Among the artifacts initially recorded on its surface were several displaying attributes reminiscent of Paleoindian technology. In an effort to ascertain the site’s age and function, detailed surface mapping and test excavations were conducted from 2002 to 2004.   Subsequent laboratory investigation involved lithic analysis, an extensive GIS-aided refitting effort, and spatial analysis of the lithic scatter. The analytical goals were to determine if 5GN149 represents an intense occupation within a short time period or multiple brief occupation episodes spanning a long time period; to identify the types of activities that occurred here; to identify the technology (or technologies) present and the period(s) of occupation—not least whether 5GN149 represents a Clovis occupation. Our results indicate the site functioned primarily as a quarry workshop and tool production locality for mobile hunter-gatherers (high quality quartzite cobbles are available in the immediate vicinity), although the occurrence of scrapers and other chipped stone tools suggest additional activities occurred during what appear to have been relatively brief visits to the site. Discrete artifact concentrations marking episodes of stone tool reduction were observed within the larger lithic scatter, and analysis of these reveals differential use, activities, and technologies at the site over time. The precise span is unknown: the site has yielded diagnostic projectile points and point preforms ranging in age from Late Paleoindian to the Late Prehistoric or Protohistoric period. Although we were able to tease apart aspects of this palimpsest of occupations, the lack of suitable material for radiometric dating makes it impossible to provide more specific age(s) for 5GN149.

 

 

Pp. 30–61:  GAINING GROUND ON THE GATEWAY TRADITION: ANALYSIS OF MATERIALS FROM WEIMER RANCH, A PREHISTORIC FARMING SETTLEMENT IN WEST CENTRAL COLORADO, by Rand A. Greubel, Alan D. Reed, and Bradford W. Andrews

 

ABSTRACT

An abandoned collection of archaeological materials, recovered from nine Late Prehistoric structural sites on the Weimer Ranch and adjacent public lands in western Colorado in the mid-1970s, was analyzed by Alpine Archaeological Consultants, Inc. Based on radiocarbon dates and ceramic crossdating, the sites were occupied during the tenth and eleventh centuries A.D. The results of the analyses suggest that the site occupants possessed their own ceramic tradition and pursued a subsistence strategy based on maize horticulture and big game hunting. Imported ceramics and rock art suggest connections to the Pueblo II unit of southwestern Colorado. The materials represent the most comprehensively studied collection of Gateway tradition artifacts and ecofacts to date.

 

Pp. 62–70:  THE FAKE ANASAZI OF MANITOU SPRINGS, COLORADO: A STUDY IN ARCHAEOLOGY,

by Troy R. Lovata

 

ABSTRACT

Visitors have been making their way to Manitou Springs, Colorado, to tour a set of Anasazi cliff dwellings for nearly a hundred years. However, few realize that these ruins lie well outside the range of Anasazi settlement and that they have come to a place that the Anasazi never occupied. The Manitou Cliff Dwellings have been dismissed by many heritage professionals as, at best, a tourist trap. But they were constructed with the blessing of some of archaeology’s most powerful and honored pioneers. The Manitou Cliff Dwellings lend insight into the relationship between the discipline of archaeology and the wider public. They offer the opportunity to understand the role that authenticity and authority play in the study of the past and highlight the differences between preservation, explanation, and re-creation.

 

 

Pp. 71-99:  FIELD INVESTIGATIONS OF THE COLORADO OFFICE OF ARCHAEOLOGY

AND HISTORIC PRESERVATION, 1996–2007, by Kevin D. Black and Thomas Carr

 

ABSTRACT

A variety of archaeological fieldwork has been completed by staff of the Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation at the Colorado Historical Society since 1996. The work summarized here is largely related to the duties of the Office of the State Archaeologist of Colorado, including investigations of unmarked human graves, public education through training surveys on state lands, and technical assistance to encourage archaeological preservation and study. Projects range from moderately sized inventories of several hundred acres each, to recordings of individual archaeological sites, to small excavations at sites with unmarked human graves. Not included are site inspections related to National Historic Preservation Act Section 106 compliance, or State Historical Fund projects.  Short summaries are provided on 57 projects completed in 32 of Colorado’s 64 counties.

 

 


Return to top


 

Fall 2009, Volume 75, Number 3

 

Pp. 1-32:  NON-SITE ARCHEOLOGY IN ROCKY MOUNTAIN NATIONAL PARK, by William B. Butler

 

Abstract

Non-site or distributional analysis seeks to discern patterns of human behavior by examining the relationship and patterning of individual tool functions as related to some environmental parameter such as vegetation, altitude, or topography. Non-site analysis allows each tool to have the same weight in the analysis, thus an isolated find has the same importance as the same tool found in a site. Some 485 sites and isolated finds from Rocky Mountain National Park were used to examine the relationship of 10 functional tool groups with seven vegetation communities. Statistically significant associations were seen between site locations and specific biomes and between the specific tool types and certain biomes. Statistically significant associations were also found for time of occupation with a vegetation unit. The data suggested additional site and tool relationships.  Although a site might be described as being in a subalpine or lodgepole pine forest, a visual inspection of the GIS maps shows that these sites are near the edge of the

forest next to a meadow, i.e., where the large ungulates can be found. It is proposed that the tundra game drives were used in the fall of the year when several bands would come together to run them—this is the time of the year when there was sufficient food to support large groups of people. The presence of manos and metates in or near the tundra suggests that they were used to grind dried meat derived from the game drives for incorporation with berries, seeds, and fat to make pemmican. It would appear that the tool kits brought to the park were robust and were used in all vegetation zones suggesting a broad economy. The differences in certain tools in the separate biomes suggest the utilization of different resources in a summer through fall occupancy, which is a very old and successful pattern for living in the high mountains, and it was practiced by the Ute, Apache, and possibly other groups until the acquisition of the horse.

 


Return to top


 

Winter 2009, Volume 75, Number 4

 

Pp. 1-52:  A THIRTY-YEAR PERSPECTIVE ON THE UNCOMPAHGRE VALLEY

UTE PROJECT IN WESTERN COLORADO, by Steven G. Baker

 

ABSTRACT

This paper summarizes salient portions of over 30 years of ethnohistorical research and archaeological studies conducted by the author through the Uncompahgre Valley Ute Project (UVUP). These studies have been part of the public archaeology outreach program of Centuries Research, Inc., in partnership with many private land owners, patrons, collaborating colleagues, and both public and private agencies including the City of Montrose, Montrose Community Foundation, Ouray County Historical Society, and the State Historic Fund administered by the Colorado Historical Society.  Emphasizing ethnohistory and archaeology at the local community level, this multidisciplinary research has been directed to the study and conservation of sites and topics associated with the Uncompahgre Ute Band’s former occupation of the Uncompahgre Valley and surrounding areas of western Colorado until 1881 when these people were removed to Utah. Descriptive summaries and pertinent references relating to these and related Ute studies emphasize: the Second Los Pinos (Uncompahgre) Indian Agency (5OR139) and associated teepee encampments in the vicinity of Colona, Colorado; the Chief Ouray Mountain House (5OR965) in Ouray; the Chief Ouray Ranch (5MN847) at Montrose; the Ute/Ouray Memorial Park (5MN1841) at Montrose; the Robideau Rock Art Panel and Juan Rivera signature (5MN5110) in Delta County; ongoing research and manuscript preparation for the Juan Rivera journeys of 1765 into west central Colorado; the ongoing Old Wood Calibration Project of Centuries Research, Inc., and the Laboratory of Tree Ring Research at the University of Arizona; ongoing research into the ethnographic evidence relative to a di-hybrid origin for the North American Indians, and research on wickiup and teepee sites. The database assembled through the efforts described herein is quite substantial and has demonstrated that a number of old notions relative to the Ute occupation of western Colorado and the Colorado Plateau must be revised.

 


Return to top


 

Spring 2010, Volume 76, Number 1

 

THE 75TH ANNIVERSARY ISSUE OF SOUTHWESTERN LORE.  This is a re-print compilation of some of the essential and informative articles of our organization's formation and early years.

 

 


Return to Top   Return to Home Page


 

 

Summer 2010, Volume 76, Number 2

 

Pp. 1–31:  ANALYSIS OF AND INVESTIGATIONS INTO THE BORMAN–PIKES PEAK WHOLE VESSEL (5EP3496),

EL PASO COUNTY, COLORADO, by Priscilla B. Ellwood

 

ABSTRACT

In 1999 a nearly complete plain ceramic vessel was found at an elevation of 9,400 feet below the summit of Pikes Peak. It was named the Borman–Pikes Peak whole vessel and assigned the Smithsonian number 5EP3496. The current study is a detailed description of the vessel. Accelerator mass spectrometry provides the radiocarbon age of 470 ± 40 B.P. or cal A.D. 1410–1470 at 2 sigma. Mineralogical analysis shows that the vessel was manufactured close to where it was found. The vessel is of paddle-and-anvil

construction, and palynological analysis indicates that the vessel was primarily used for cooking maize. A comparison of attributes is made with the most similar known Colorado whole vessels, including the Dismal River, Dorr–Purgatoire River, and the Parsons–Lorencito Canyon whole vessels (Ellwood 2002). The cultural comparisons, manufacturing styles, and form comparisons indicate the vessel is of Plains technology of manufacture. The cultural group that produced this vessel may be associated with a pre-Dismal River group and with an earlier Athapaskan–Plains Apache group. It indicates the Athapaskan–Plains Apache people were utilizing the mountains at a much earlier time than originally documented. This evidence has a direct bearing on current debates regarding the material culture of the early Athapaskans and the timing of their entry into Colorado. Future occurrences of pottery exhibiting this morphology, construction, and dated to this time period, may warrant the definition of a previously unidentified Plains Apache pottery type.

 

 

Pp. 32-39:  THE LARSON SURVEY 2008–09: A STORY OF CONSERVATION IN

SOUTHWESTERN COLORADO, by Bob McBride

 

ABSTRACT

The Hisatsinom Chapter of the Colorado Archaeology Society undertook an archaeological surface survey of a 360-acre private property tract in Montezuma County, Colorado, during 2008 and 2009. Thirty-seven prehistoric sites were found with artifacts and features inventoried and recorded with the Colorado Historical Society office. Ancestral Puebloan sites were identified and predominate the phases found; however, a larger than expected number of earlier sites were found. Sites were considered early based on the presence of a large amount of lithic reduction debris along with the absence of ceramics and architectural features. Two Paleoindian and eight Archaic projectile points were collected and donated to the Anasazi Heritage Center, Dolores, Colorado. These sites have the potential to expand our understanding of earlier time periods of occupation in southwestern Colorado. This survey is a demonstration of how a private landowner interested in preservation of his property can work with avocational archaeologists to record and help preserve sites for future generations.  

 

 


Return to top


 

Fall 2010, Volume 76, Number 3

 

Pp. 1-23:  SPIRAL GLYPHS OF MANCOS CANYON, by Virginia Wolf and Edward Wheeler

 

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the paper is to show a variety of spiral/circular rock-art images found in Mancos Canyon, within the Ute Mountain Tribal Park. In the southwest corner of Colorado this canyon, adjacent to Mesa Verde, has been protected by the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe from vandalism and degradation. Consequently, large quantities of pristine petroglyphs and pictographs, some old, some more recent, can be found throughout the lower elevations of the canyon. The early work of Anna Sofaer in Chaco Canyon encouraged our interest in archaeoastronomy, and we were fortunate to be given the opportunity to survey Mancos Canyon to search for similar spiral rock-art sites in the Park, beginning in l989. A number of older, larger spirals have been observed on the solstices and have proven to be consistently accurate solstice markers. Observations of spiral glyphs in Mancos Canyon on the solstices unexpectedly directed our attention to associated man-made features, that we simply call holes, which signified the end of the solstice event. Although spirals seemed to be the preferred image to portray the solstice event, some sites were documented where effigy shadows displayed solstice markers. Descriptions of archaeoastronomy features at four sites in Mancos Canyon and conclusions based on the research at the solstice sites are presented.

 


Return to top


 

Winter 2010, Volume 76, Number 4

 

Pp. 1–7:  THE 1868 WINTER CAMPAIGN OF THE 5TH CAVALRY, by Peter Faris

 

ABSTRACT

A historic inscription reading “J. O’Hare Co. I, 5th Cav.” is carved inside the entrance of a rock shelter at the mouth of a tributary of Freezeout Canyon on a pri­vate ranch in Baca County, Colorado. The author visited this site and photographed the inscription in 1995. The history of events presented here will provide the context for understanding the significance of the location, the name of the canyon, and the cre­ation of the inscription.

 

 

Pp. 9-18:  THE PICTURED CLIFFS: HUMAN DAMAGE AT A ROCK ART SITE, by Lorna Gail LaDage

 

ABSTRACT

Since W. H. Holmes of the Bureau of Ethnology described the Pictured Cliffs at Waterflow, New Mexico, in an 1893 publication, LA8970 has been surveyed numer­ous times and was placed on the New Mexico State Historic Register in 1969. Despite the interest and efforts afforded the large petroglyph site near the San Juan River, LA8790 continues to deteriorate from natural and human causes. Located along a highway with easy and unmonitored access, under private ownership and largely unfenced, the Pictured Cliffs lies between two of the largest coal­fired power plants in the United States. A history of the Waterflow, New Mexico, site and possible interven­tions not yet taken at the site will be discussed.

 


Return to top


Spring 2011, Volume 77, No. 1

 

PRINCIPLES OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY FOR THE WESTERN UNITED STATES, by Michael J. Landem

 

ABSTRACT

Archaeological surveys require basic knowledge of land subdivision: Principal Meridian Surveys, Township and Range, sections, the Aliquot Part System, and survey monuments.  The GPS revolution has greatly changed both the performance of survey work

and the documentation of resources. Inexpensive hand-held GPS units have become accurate enough to guide a crew on survey across featureless desert, open prairie, or rugged mountain terrain on near perfect parallel transects. More expensive units may

be used to very accurately record locations and map sites and isolates.  Bidding survey projects requires a high degree of skill and experience in predicting days per section for a given crew, impacted by the type of survey, transect interval,

nature of the terrain, site density, access, weather, ground visibility, slope exclusions, and other factors. Techniques and methodologies for both block and linear surveys under a variety of field conditions must often be modified and combined to fit the unique nature of the individual project and available crew. Safe, efficient, and professional completion of the

contract is the goal.

 

Summer/Fall 2011, Volume 77, Nos. 2 & 3

  

Pp 3--8:  INTRODUCTION, by Sally J. Cole

The papers in this volume of Southwestern Lore were presented in Dolores, Colorado, at the 2009 Pecos Conference forum titled “Regional Perspectives on Basketmaker II.” The works summarize recent research in 10 political and geophysical areas of the Colorado Plateau by authors who have made major contributions to the study of Basketmaker II culture: Leslie M.

Sesler and Timothy D. Hovezak for the San Juan Basin, New Mexico; Mona C. Charles for the Durango, Colorado, area; Benjamin A. Bellorado for the Upper San Juan region, Colorado and New Mexico; Timothy M. Kearns for the Southern Chuska Valley, New Mexico; Grant Fahrni and Sharyl Kinnear- Ferris for the Moab, Utah, area; Winston Hurst, Francis E. Smiley, and

Michael R. Robins for Comb Ridge, Utah; William D. Lipe, R. G. Matson, and Brian Kemp for Cedar Mesa, Utah; Phil R. Geib and Kimberly Spurr for Navajo Mountain, Utah and Arizona; and Douglas A. McFadden for the Grand Staircase, Utah (see Figure 1). The papers confirm that the subject remains vibrant and meaningful into the third century of investigations (Atkins

1994). Basketmaker II represents the beginnings of the Ancestral Pueblo (Anasazi) tradition in the greater San Juan region and neighboring areas, and the view of this early period has expanded and become enriched through research. The emerging identity is tied to corn (maize) agriculture and a broadly unifying set of material culture and iconography marked by regional variation

as indicated in the following papers. It is generally estimated to date from 1000 B.C. to A.D. 550 and incorporates interesting similarities and differences with regard to agriculture, settlement patterns, perishable and durable artifacts,

architecture, social organization, and rock art (Charles and Cole 2006; Lipe 1999;Matson 1991, 2006). Appropriately, the data collection and analyses raise new questions and challenge us to know more about the beginnings of corn

agriculture and the indigenous farmers who sustained it for millennia on the Colorado Plateau. Basketmaker II contributions to Puebloan culture are evident, and knowledge of the origins and continuities is particularly relevant to questions

of cultural affiliation under the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) and for meeting the challenges of site preservation and interpretation in the northern Southwest. This volume advances our understanding of Basketmaker II and its cultural descendents and enhances the possibilities for research in the coming decade.

 

Pp 9--20:  DURANGO-ANIMAS AND UPPER SAN JUAN RIVERS, COLORADO AND NEW MEXICO:

Farming at the Edge of Paradise: Basketmaker II Emergence in New Mexico’s San Juan Basin

by Leslie M. Sesler and Timothy D. Hovezak

 

ABSTRACT

The spread of agriculture onto the southern Colorado Plateau is inextricably linked to the early development of Ancestral Puebloan traditions. The archeological record of this vast region supports two major competing theories of the emergence of

agriculture and attendant cultural changes: that of an immigrant maize farming culture, and the gradual assimilation of maize into the subsistence system of a resident Archaic population. That these two theories have survived side by side for a number of

decades is a testament to the complexity and variability of the record, further suggesting that the transition to agriculture was not a uni-lineal phenomenon. Recent studies in northwest New Mexico’s San Juan Basin provide an example of a transition with

roots in the Archaic, and evidence of a possible antecedent to the better-known Basketmaker II occupations of the Durango, Colorado, area and Navajo Reservoir District in northwest New Mexico and southwest Colorado. It is ironic that the material discovered by Kidder, the initial proponent for the in situ evolution, is that most likely to be the result of a migration from elsewhere, and that the Durango material excavated by Morris and Burgh, the leading proponents for a migration, is most likely to have had a local antecedent. R. G. Matson 1991.

 

 

Pp 21--32:  REDEFINING THE CHRONOLOGY OF THE DURANGO BASKETMAKERS, by Mona C. Charles

 

ABSTRACT

New radiocarbon dates from the Darkmold Site, 5LP4991, near Durango, Colorado, expand the current knowledge of the Basketmaker II period in the Durango area. Thirty radiocarbon dates on corn and other annuals, from the Darkmold Site,

augment known radiocarbon dates from four other Durango Basketmaker II sites, which include tree-ring dates and radiocarbon dates from rock art paint and from corn and other annuals. A cluster of dates in the late fifth century A.D. is especially informative

because these confirm that the Durango Basketmakers resided in the Durango area until A.D. 500. Taken together, the dates from five Durango Basketmaker II sites leave little doubt that the Basketmaker II inhabited the Durango area for at least

1,000 years with little to no significant hiatuses.

 

 

Pp 33--48:  PUSHING THE LIMITS AND TORMENTING CORN SEEDS: Cultural Adaptations and Climatic Change in the Upper San Juan During the Basketmaker II Period and Beyond, by Benjamin A. Bellorado

 

ABSTRACT

Following the initial introduction of maize farming to the northern Southwest, farming techniques and corn varieties diversified in many areas of the region during the Basketmaker II period, but appear to have remained relatively unchanged in the

Upper San Juan and Durango areas until much later. Throughout the area occupied by Eastern Basketmaker groups, populations appear to have shared a similar suite of agricultural land use practices focusing primarily on utilization of alluvial fan ecological

niches. Patterns of periodic demographic shifts by farmers in the area appear to have been spurred in part by climatic fluctuation that changed the ecology of these alluvial fan settings at various times in prehistory. I present new data from analyses of

ancient agricultural systems used by early farming peoples throughout the Durango and Upper San Juan areas, and experimentation with the limitations of these systems. These data provide new insights into prehistoric cultural variability and new methods

to better test archaeological interpretations of the relationships between climate change and human subsistence through time.

 

 

Pp 49--72:  SOUTHERN CHUSKA VALLEY, NEW MEXICO: Basketmaker II in the Southern Chuska Valley, New Mexico, by Timothy M. Kearns

 

ABSTRACT

The Basketmaker II occupation of the southern Chuska Valley, New Mexico, ca. 1000 B.C. to A.D. 150, is summarized. Settlement included open camps, pithouse habitations, and storage and burial sites. Subsistence was based on maize agriculture,

gathered resources, and small mammals.

 

Pp 73--80:  MOAB AND THE CANYONLANDS, UTAH:  Basketmaker Chronology near Moab, Utah, by Grant Fahrni

 

ABSTRACT

Between 1993 and 2000, the Mill Creek Archaeological Project documented

many Basketmaker sites in Mill Creek Canyon near the town of Moab, Utah. This document

provides chronological data and brief descriptions of four tested sites.

 

 

Pp 81-- 88:  BASKETMAKER-AGE WOVEN PERISHABLES OF THE MOAB REGION, by Sharyl Kinnear-Ferris

 

ABSTRACT

Woven perishable artifacts dating from the Archaic through Historic periods have been documented at sites in the Moab-Canyonlands region in Utah. This paper focuses on three fiber artifacts that chronometrically date to the Basketmaker II period, specifically a Canyonlands coiled burden basket dating to cal A.D. 250 to 430, a Horseshoe

Canyon coiled basket dating to cal A.D. 65 to 245, and a Mill Creek coiled disc dating to cal A.D. 1 to 359 accompanied with a descriptive comparison of two other coiled discs from Mill Creek Canyon. The artifacts described in this paper were found separately at three sites that contain differing assemblages, and are heterogenous in technique.

 

Pp 89--102:  COMB RIDGE, CEDAR MESA, NAVAJO MOUNTAIN AND GRAND STAIRCASE, UTAH AND ARIZONA: Early Farmers at the Earth’s Backbone: Basketmaker II in the Comb Ridge Area, by Winston Hurst, Francis E. Smiley, and Michael R. Robins

 

ABSTRACT

Investigations in the past two decades have opened new insights into the nature, origin, and evolution of Basketmaker II culture in the Comb Ridge region of southeastern Utah. This article briefly summarizes the results of those investigations, and

offers an updated review of certain aspects of Basketmaker II culture as viewed from Comb Ridge.

 

Pp 103--112:  NEW INSIGHTS FROM OLD COLLECTIONS:  Cedar Mesa, Utah, Revisited, by William D. Lipe, R. G. Matson, and Brian Kemp

 

ABSTRACT

Basketmaker II period collections made in the 1970s during the Cedar Mesa Project are being re-examined with new questions and in some cases with new analytical techniques. Included are DNA analyses of human and turkey coprolites, palynology

of the latter, and studies of biface production technology and of a defensive site lithic assemblage. Experimental studies will assess the effects of stone-boiling with limestone on maize nutritional qualities. Regional subsistence data synthesis indicates the maize dominated

 

Pp 113--118:  BASKETMAKER II OCCUPATION OF THE NAVAJO MOUNTAIN REGION, by Phil R. Geib and Kimberly Spurr

 

ABSTRACT

Basketmaker occupation of the area around Navajo Mountain and adjacent canyons and mesas has been known since at least 1930 when Irwin Hayden excavated two caves along Desha Creek (Schilz 1979) in far southeast Utah. Museum of

Northern Arizona’s work at Sand Dune Cave at the foot of Navajo Mountain in the early 1960s provided detailed information about Basketmaker II material culture of this region (Lindsay et al. 1968). Many basic aspects of Basketmaker II lifeway in the

area remained speculative or undocumented, however, until excavation of sites along the Navajo Mountain road in the 1990s. Here we present a summary of findings from that project on the topics of chronology, architecture, settlement, subsistence, and “origins.”

 

 

Pp 119--  :  THE BASKETMAKER II HORIZON: A View from the Grand Staircase, by Douglas A. McFadden

  

ABSTRACT

Radiometric and tree-ring dated sites from Utah’s Grand Staircase section of the Colorado Plateau are described, which suggest that the far west Basketmaker II horizon, while influenced by the San Juan Basketmaker tradition, appears to have emerged

from an indigenous Archaic population. These groups quickly became dependent on agriculture and pre-staged an adaptation known as the Virgin Anasazi tradition.

 

 

Winter 2011,Volume 77, No. 4

 

Pp 1--21:  THE 120TH AVENUE BURIAL {5AM1733), ADAMS COUNTY, COLORADO

by Erik M. Gantt, Christian J. Zier, Ann L. Magennis and Stephen M. Kalasz

 

ABSTRACT

The 120th Avenue Burial (5AM1733) was discovered in the spring of 2004 during construction of the 120th Avenue Extension in western Adams County, Colorado. The site is located on the irregular crest of a ridge that overlooks the floodplain

of the South Platte River from the northwest. An AMS radiocarbon assay on charcoal flecking within the pit returned a conventional date of 2060 ± 40 B.P, with a calibrated 2-sigma range of 180 B.C. to A.D. 30. The radiometric date and morphology

of two ste1nmed bifaces indicate that the burial is of Late Archaic age. The burial appears to be a primary interment of an adult male, probably in excess of 50 years old at the time of death, in a small ovate pit of unknown total depth.

 

Pp 22--  :  THE PLATTE CANYON BYPASS:  A Multi-Component Locality in Central Colorado by Metin I I.Eren, David J. Meltzer; Rachel R. Colwell